breakfast, dietary food, pasta & cereal products technology (hand book)

breakfast, dietary food, pasta & cereal products technology (hand book)
Author: EIRI Books
ISBN: 9788189765101
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BREAKFAST, DIETARY FOOD, PASTA & CEREAL PRODUCTS TECHNOLOGY

INTRODUCTION TO CEREALS

Basic Classification
How Cereals are Used A Brief Overview

NUTRIENT COMPOSITION OF CEREAL GRAINS


Wheat
Moisture
Protein
GlutenLipids
Carbohydrates
Vitamins
Minerals
Enzymes
Amylase (Diastase)
Proteases
Lipase
Lipoxidase
Phenol and Aromatic Amine Oxidases
Peoxidases
Rice
Moisture
protein
Carbohydrate
Minerals
Protein
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Vitamins
Minerals
Barley
Protein
Lipids
Carbohydrates
Minerals
Sorghum
Protein
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Vitamins and Minerals
Pearl Millet
Lipids
Protein and Amino Acid
Carbohydrates
Vitamins
Minerals

STRUCTURE OF CEREAL GRAINS

Wheat
Endosperm
Bran Layer
Germ
Pericarp
Seed Coat & Nuceller  Epidermis
Aleurone Layer
Germ of Embryo
Endosperm
Peripheral
Prismatic
Central
Corn
Hull
germ
Hull
germ
Endosperm
Tip Cap
Rice
Hull
Aleurone Layer
Endosperm
Germ
Barley
Sorghum
Pericarp and Testa
Aleurone Layer
Endosperm
Peart Millet
Pericarp
Germ
Endosperm

MILLING OF WHEAT

Milling of Wheat
Milling process
Taditional Milling
Modern Milling
Graining Cleaning
Conditioning or Tempering
Roller Milling
The Break System
The Reduction System
End Products of Milling and their Application
Milling Quality
Milling of Soft Wheat v/s Hard Wheat
Flour Treatments
Bleaching
Maturing

TYPES AND GRADES OF FLOUR

White Flour
Brown Flour
Whole Meal Flour
Germ Enriched
Multigrain Flour
Organic Flour
Bread Making Flour
Biscuit Flours
Plain of Self Raising Flour
Cake Flours
Composite and Alternative Flours
Raw Materials Suitable for Composite Products
Quality of Raw Materials
Grades of Flour
Straight Flour
Patent Flours
Clear Flours
Red Dog Flours
Bran
Wheat Shorts
Germ

PROCESSING AND PARBOILING OF RICE

Cleaning
Dehusking
Hand Pounding
Mechanical Hullers
Stone Dehullers
The Engleberg Paddy Huller
The Rubber Roll Dehuller
Milling
By Products of Rice
Rice Hulls
Rice Bran
Rice Polishings
Aging of Rice
Parboiling of Rice
Processed Rice Products
Precooked and Instant Rice (Quick cooking Rice)
Canned Rice Products
Breakfast Foods and Snack Foods
Parched Extrusion Paddy/Puffed  Rice from Paddy
Puffed Rice from Parboiled Rice
Flaked Rice
Noodles (Rice Pasta)
Fermented Rice Products
Rice Flours and Starch
Baked Rice Products

PROCESSING OF MAIZE

Dry Milling
Wet Milling
Steeping
Milling
Screening, Centrifugation and Washing
Maize Products

PROCESSING OF SORGHUM

Cleaning and Dehulling Through Hand Pounding
Decortication or Attrition Milling
Grinding and Pulverizing
Dry Milling
Wet Milling
Processing Melted Grains
Processed Sorghum Based Products

PROCESSING OF BARLEY

Milling
Blocked and Peart Barley
Barley Grits
Barley Flour
Barley Flakes
Malting
Grain Selection
Preparation and Storage
Steeping
Germination
Kilning
Dressing
Uses of Barley Malt


PROCESSING OF OATS

Milling
Cleaning
Grading
Impact Dehulling
Stabilization
Cutting, Grading and Cleaning Groats
Use of Oat Mill Products

BREAD MAKING

Ingredients
Essential
Optional
Wheat Flour
Colour
Strength
Tolerance
High absorption
Water
Salt
Sugar
Fat
Glycerol Monostearate (GMS)
Milk
Increased Absorption and Dough Strengthening
Increased Mixing Tolerance
Longer Fermentation
Better Crust Colour
Better Grain and Texture
Increased Loaf Volume
Better Keeping Quality
Better Nutrition
Yeast
Improvers
Preservatives
Formula Construction
Example Problem
Processing Methods of Bread
Basic Operation in Bread Making
Sieving
Weighing
Preparation of Different Solutions
Mixing
Fermentation
Knock back
Scaling or Dividing
Rounding
Intermediate Proof
Moulding
Final Proof
Baking
Size and Shape of Loaf
Total Sugars in Dough at Baking Time
Cooling and Slicing
Packaging

BAKED PRODUCTS FROM SOFT WHEAT

Cookies
Batter Type Cookies
Foam Type Cookies
Rotary Mold Cookies
Cutting Machine Cookies
Wire Cut Cookies
Sugar Waters
Cookie Ingredients
Flour
Sugar
Shortening
Eggs
Milk Solids
Chemical Leavening Agents
Suggestions in Cookie Making
Problems in Cookie Making
Cookie Dough Crumbles when Handled and Rolled
Cookie dough is soft and sticky
Cookie Dough is Tough and Resists Rolling Out
Cookies Shrink after Cutting
Cookies Spread too much During Baking
Cookies have Uneven Colour and may have Spots
Cookies vary in Size and Shape
Crackers
Biscuits
Mixing and Kneading
Sheeting and Shaping
Baking and Cooling
Packaging
Cakes and pastries
Cake Types
Shortened
Unshortened Cake
Cake Making Ingredients
Essential Ingredients
Optional Ingredients
Structure Builders
Tenderizers
Moisteners
Driers
Flavours
Flour
Sugar
Shortening
EggsMilk
Water
Salt
Leavening Agents
Mechanical Aeration
Chemical Aeration
Vapour pressure
Flavour
Cake Making Methods
Sugar Batter Method
Flour Batter Method
Advantages
Blending Method
Boiled Method
Sugar Water Method
All in Process
Half a Minute at Low Speed
Two Minute at Fast Speed
Two Minute at Slow Speed
Panning of Cake Batter
Baking
Baking and Cooling Losses
Characteristics of Cakes
External Characteristics
Volume
Colour of Crust
Symmetry of Form
Character of Crust
Internal Characteristics
Grain
Colour of Crumb
Aroma
Taste
Texture
Cake Faults and Remedies
Wrong Quality of Raw Material
Sugar
Shortening
Eggs
Baking Powder
Fruits
Improperly Balanced Formula
Baking Powder
Operational Mistakes
Type of Cakes
Sponge Cake
Straight Sponge
Short Sponge
Angel Cake
Pound Cake
Other Baked Products
Pastry
Danish Pastry
Puff Pastry
Short Pastry
Hot Process Pie Paste
Wafers
Crisp Bread

MACARONI PRODUCTS

Method of Manufacure
Noodles
Method of Preparation
Different Type of Noodles
Alternative Raw Materials for Macaroni Products

COOKIES, CAKES AND OTHER FLOUR CONFECTIONERY

Importance of Baked Products in the Diet
Cakes and Pastries

MANUFACTURE OF BAKED PRODUCTS

Manufacture of Cookies
Ingredients Handling
Mixing
Short Doughs
Hard Doughs
Forming
Baking
Second processes
Packaging
Manufacture of Cakes
Mixing
Cake Baking
Packaging
Manufacture of Pastry
Manufacture of Wafers
Manufacture of Crispbread

PASTA

Introduction
Origins
Manufacture
Drying
Drying Long Pasta
High Temperature and Microwave Drying
Storage and Packing
Cooking and Quality
Colour
Nutrition
Durum Wheat
Milling
Alternative Raw Materials

OATS

Quality of Oats for Milling
Cleaning
Grading
Impact Hulling
Stabilization
Cutting, grading, and Cleaning Groats
Oat Mill Products
Chemical Composition
Oat Grain and hulls
Oat Groats and bran
Macronufrients and Fiber
Micronutrients
Antioxidants
Phytic Acid and phytates
Nutritional Value and Therapeutic Effects
Nutritional Value
Therapeutic Effects
Plasma Cholesterol Lowering
Modulation of Plasma Glucose Levels
Improving Gastrointestinal Function
Other Potentially Beneficial Effects
Oats and Celiac Disease
Food uses of Oats
Impact of health Claims
Breakfast Cereals
Hot Cereals
Ready to Eat Cereals
Bakery Products from Oats
Sweet Products
Breads
Snacks Foods
Infant Foods
Beverages
Other Oat Food Products and Ingredients
Industrial Uses
Naked Oats

BREAKFAST CEREALS

Wheat Cereals
Corn Cereals
Oat Cereals
Other Grains as Hot Cereals
Pre cooked Hot Cereals
Processing Ready to Eat Breakfast Cereals
Flakes
General Considerations
Corn Flakes
Wheat Flakes
Bran Flakes
Flakes from other grains
Shreds
Shredded wheat biscuits
Granules
Puffed Cereals
General considerations
Oven puffed rice
Gun puffed products
Puffing by extrusion
Sugar coated products

SNACK FOODS

Popcorn
Four Types of Popcorn
Mechanism of Popping
Quality Factors
Processing
Sifters
Coaters
Formulated Puffed Snacks
Ingredients
Other grain products
Expandable ingredients
Fats, Oils, Emulsifiers and  Antioxidants
Shortenings
Frying Fats
Antioxidants
Sweeteners
Other Ingredients
Factors Affecting Quality of Puffed Snacks
Puffing Behaviour of Starches
Effect of Moisture Content
Effect of pH
Extruders and Extruding
Types of Extruders
Low Pressure forming
High Pressure Cooker Extruders
Example of a Twin screw Extruder
Representative Extrusion Processes
Manufacturing Corn Chips
Snacks that are Cooked and Formed
Half product Processing
Direct or One Stage Puffing
Drying
Extrusion Variable
Process parameters
Some System Parameters to be Measured
Collection of Extruded Product and Post Extrusion Processing
Experimental design
Complete Plants
Other Snacks
Baked Snacks
Salty Savory Baked Snacks
Sweet Baked Snacks

SPECIAL, DIETARY FOODS AND INGREDIENTS

 Special dietary Foods
Hot Cereals for Small Children
Quality Control
Junior Cereals
Beverages
Cereals Derived Supplements
Enhancing Fiber Consumption

FERMENTED CEREAL PRODUCTS

Introduction
Major Types of Cereal Fermented Products
Microbiology of Cereal Fermentations
Different Fermented Cereal Products
Bread
Classification of bread Types
Leavening
Formulation
Shape and Size
Specific Volume
Crust Characteristics
Crumb Characteristics
Bread Making
Methods of Bread Production
Flavour Development
Dough Maturing
Bread like Products
Sour Dough bread
Crackers
Dough nuts
Pretzels
Warries
Microflora Associated with Warri Fermentation
Idli
Microflora Associated with Idli Fermentation
Biochemical Changes Accompanying Idli Fermentation
Dosa
Biochemical Changes Accompanying Dosa Fermentation
Other Cereal Prodducts
Bhatura
Jalebie
Kulcha
Nan
Future Outlook

PET FOODS

Quality Considerations
Formulas and Processes

COMMERCIAL BAKING TECHNOLOGY

Introduction
Ingredients used in Baking
Flour
Wheat flour
Rye flour
Leavening Agents
Chemical leavening agents
Special Minor Ingredients
Dietetic Ingredients
The Equipment of baking
Materials Handling Equipment
Mixers
Forming Individual Dough  Pieces
Dough dividers
Rounders
Fermentation Rooms and Proofing Equipment
Dough Molding and Shaping Equipment
Special Methods for Sweet Goods
Continuous Bread Making Processes
Ovens
Other Bakery Operations
The Reactions of Baking
Mixing
Leavening Reactions
Baking
Examples of Preparation Methods
Yeast leavened Products
White Bread and Rolls
French Bread
White Rolls
Sweet doughs
Straight Dough Method for Sweet Goods
Sponge Sweet Dough Formula
Rye breads
Formula
Dough
Procedure
Formula
Dough
Procedure
Dietetic breads
Soda Crackers
Soda Cracker Formula
Chemically leavened Products
Cookies
Sugar Water Formula


PASTA TECHNOLOGY

Raw Materials Legal Requirements
Cereal Ingredients
Processes and Equipment
Feeders
Controlling Ingredient Addition
Control
Adding Eggs
The Mixer Extruder
Heat Generation
Vacuum
Dies
Die Construction
Die Cleaning and Storage
Noodle Production
Special Shapes and Styles
Bologna Style
Twisted Goods
Ravioli
Drying Macaroni Products
The Drying Process
Fundamental Considerations
Current Procedures
Drying EquipmentShort Cuts Dryers
Long Goods Dryers
Drying Noodles, Skeins and Nests
Special Drying Equipment
Checking
Theory
Checking in Production
Effect of Vacuum Extrusion on checking
Drying Systems for Long Spaghetti
Examples of Continuous Systems
Long Goods Lines
DeFrancisci long Spaghetti Line
Buhler Long Goods Production Line
Braibanti Long Goods Production Line
Pavan Long Goods System
Clermont Line
Short Goods Lines
Defrancisci Short Cuts Line
Buhler Short Cuts System
Reprocessing Scrap
Other Products
Oriental Style Pasta
Precooked Lasagna
Other Varieties
Products which are Not Dried
Direct Canned Spaghetti
Cooked Products in Plastic Containers
Quality Control
Federal Regulations
Consumer Quality
Some Common Tests
Appearance
Total Solids
Cooking Quality

PACKAGING OF CEREALS AND CEREAL PRODUCTS

Spoilage Factors
Physical
Physiological
Biological
Physiological
Whole Grains & Split Pulses
Jute Bags
Advantages of Jute Bags and Jute Fabrics
High Mechanical Strength
Soft Surface with High Resistance to Friction
Porous Structure
Disadvantages of Jute Bags
Availability
Mineral Oil Contamination
Insect breeding
Cost
High Density Polyethylene (HDPE)/Polypropylene (PP) Woven Sacks
Manufacturing Process of HDPE Woven Sacks
Extrusion of Slit Film
Looming
Lamination
Cutting
Stitching
Printing
Bale Pressing and Packing
Advantages of  HDPE & PP Woven Sacks
Disadvantages of HDPE & PP Woven Sacks
Quality Parameters to be Considered for Woven Sacks
Denier
Mesh Count
Weight of the bag
Pigment Content
UV.Stabilizers
Antislip Agent
Breaking Load
Consumer Packs for Whole Food Grains
Milled Grain Products (Flours)
Bulk Packs
Consumer Packs
Polyethylene Film
Linear Low Density Polyethylene (LLDPE)
High Molecular High Density Polyethylene (HMHDPE)
Co Extruded Films
Polypropylene (PP)
Biaxially Oriented Polypropylene Film: (BOPP)
Laminates
Processed Cereal and Pulse Products
Cereal Based Convenience Foods
Cereal and Pulse Mixes Containing Spices:
Weaning Foods

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