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Complete Book On Onion Cultivation, Dehydration, Flakes, Powder, Processing And Packaging Technology With Treatment Of Onion Wastes

Complete Book On Onion Cultivation, Dehydration, Flakes, Powder, Processing And Packaging Technology With Treatment Of Onion Wastes
Complete Book On Onion Cultivation, Dehydration, Flakes, Powder, Processing And Packaging Technology With Treatment Of Onion Wastes
Author: Dr. Himadri Panda
ISBN: 9789380772639
Availability: In Stock
Price: Rs.975.00

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The book covers  Introduction, Onion Cultivation, Onion Dehydration, Process of Onion Dehydration, Effect of Process Parameters of Osmotic Dehydration of Summer Onion,  Onion Flakes, Homemade Onion Flakes, Gamma Irradiation Improved the Quality of Onion Flakes, Onion Powder Technology, Uses for Onion Powder, Onion Seed Production Techniques, Process of Producing Large Dehydrated Onion Pieces, Process for Controlling the Pinking of Onions, Drying Technologies, Infrared Drying of Onion, Microwave Drying of Onion Slices, Process Optimisation of Vacuum Drying  of Onion Slices, Process of Vacuum Treating Onions, Apparatus for Peeling Skins Off the bulbs of Onions, Magnetic Driven Onion Peeler, Flavoring Material Prepared from Onions, Pyruvate Enriched Onion Extract, Onion Extract for Treating Damaged Skin Tissue,  Onions with High Storage Ability, Packaging of Onion Products, Onion Waste treatment, Plant Economics of Onion and Garlic Powder with Grape Dehydration (Raisins),  Plant Economics of Onion Dehydration, Plant Economics of Onion, Garlics and Ginger Dehydration Plant, Plant Economic of Potato and Onion Flakes.

 

INTRODUCTION

  • Uses
  • Green Onion as Alternative Medicine
  • Topical Application of Green Onion for Sore Throat
  • For Swoilen Feet
  • Side Effects of Onion
  • Dosage
  • Toxicology
  • Health Benefits of Onion 
  • Respiratory Disease
  • Tooth Disorders
  • Anemia
  • Heart Disease
  • Sexual Debility
  • Skin Disorders
  • Cholera
  • Urinary System Disorders
  • Bleeding Piles
  • Onion powder
  • Historical Uses 
  • Medicinal properties and health effects
  • Raw Onions
  • Health & Nutrition Benefits of Eating Onions
  • Spanish Onions
  • Eye irritation
  • Propagation
  • Varieties
  • European Onions
  • Storage
  • Production trends
  • Showing Major Onion Producing Countries of the World Country

ONION CULTIVATION

  • Introduction
  • Cultivares
  • Types of onion cultivars (open pollinated cultivars are underlined)
  • Soils and climate
  • Planting systems
  • Sowing
  • Nutrient management
  • Water management
  • Weed control
  • Disease control 
  • Purple blotch
  • Stemphylium leaf blight
  • Anthracnose
  • Downy mildew
  • Botrytis leaf blight
  • Bulb rots
  • Insect pest control
  • Harvesting
  • Curing
  • Storing
  • Marketing

ONION DEHYDRATION

  • Composition of onion
  • Proximate composition and energy values of raw and dehydrated onion
  • Medicinal value of onion
  • Dehydrated onion
  • Onion varieties suitable for dehydration
  • Dehydration practices for onion
  • Solar drying
  • Reported varietal studies for onion dehydration
  • Convective air drying
  • Chemical composition of onion, fresh and dried under various temperatures
  • Fluidized bed drying
  • Microwave and freeze drying
  • Infra red drying
  • Vacuum drying
  • Freeze drying
  • Osmotic dehydration

PROCESS OF ONION DEHYDRATION

  • Processing Steps
  • Ingle line onion dehydrator 
  • Power production and energy requirements
  • The details of each stage of a typical process
  • Geothermal Applications
  • Onion Dehydration

EFFECT OF PROCESS PARAMETERS OF OSMOTIC DEHYDRATION OF SUMMER ONION

  • Materials and Methods
  • Experimental procedure for osmotic dehydration 
  • Measurement of total soluble solids
  • Osmosis of onion slices
  • Osmotic dehydration characteristics
  • Results and Discussion
  • Change in water loss of onion slice (7mm) with time in different sucrose solution
  • Change in water loss of onion slice (7mm) with time in different salt solution
  • Change in water loss of onion slices (7mm) within 24 hours time in different sucrose salt solution
  • Change in solid gain of onion slices (7mm) within 24 hours time in different sucrose salt solution
  • Influence of temperature on osmotic dehydration behavior
  • Effect of immersion time and osmotic solution concentration (60 brix salt) on behavior of summer onion slices at different temperature
  • Effect of immersion time and osmotic solution concentration (25'brix salt) on behavior of summer onion slices at different temperature
  • Effect of immersion time and osmotic concentration (55:15 brix sucrose salt) on behavior of summer onion slices at different temperature
  • Conclusions

ONION FLAKES

  • Reduced Cooking Procedure 
  • Mash Formation
  • Emulsifier if desired, emulsifier can optionally be added to the mash as a processing aid
  • Other Optional Ingredients
  • Drying the Mash to Form Dehydrated Onion Products 
  • Fabricated Chip Preparation
  • Dough Formulation
  • Optional Ingredients
  • Dough Preparation
  • Sheet
  • Frying
  • Fabricated Chip Characteristics
  • Vlatile Organic Flavor Compounds
  • Crispiness
  • Fabricated Chip Stability
  • Fabricated Chip Integrity
  • Soluble Amyopection (Ap)
  • Analytical Methods 
  • Fat Content
  • Digestible Fat Content
  • Non digestible Fat Content
  • Moisture Content
  • Volatile Flavour Compounds 
  • Firmness (Consistency) of Potato Mash by Back Extrusion Method
  • Flake Color
  • Hunter Color Determination
  • Objective 
  • Soluble Amylose and Soluble Amylopectin
  • Initial Hardness and Fabricated Chip Integrity
  • Scope
  • Water Activity (Aw)
  • Fabricated Chip Thickness
  • Water Absorption Index (WAI)
  • Particle Size Distribution Test
  • Sheet Strength Test
  • Rheological Properties Using The Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA)

HOMEMADE ONION FLAKES

  • Ingredients
  • Onions
  • Directions: (basically the same as the garlic powder)

GAMMA IRRADIATION IMPROVED THE QUALITY OF ONION FLAKES

  • Materials and methods
  • Irradiation and Storage
  • Microbiological Analysis 
  • Determinations of Water Activity, Water Content and Optical Index
  • Pungency
  • Statistical Analysis
  • Results and discussion
  • Microbial load of packaged onion flakes at retail
  • Effect of gamms irradiation on microbial load of imported onion flakes 
  • Irradiation doses and water content (WC) of onion flakes
  • Irradiation doses and water activity (aw) of onion flakes
  • Irradiation doses and optical index of onion flakes
  • Pyruvic acid content in onion flakes as a function of irradiation dose

ONION POWDER TECHNOLOGY

  • Key Machines for our vacuum Dried Onion
  • Powder Making Production line
  • Stainless Steel Chain Hoister
  • Onion Washing Machine
  • Onin Picking Up Belt 
  • Onion Peeling Machine
  • Working Principle
  • Onion Slicing Machine
  • Onion Original Smell Protetion Tank 
  • Vacuum Freezing Drying Machine
  • Basic Structure 
  • Technical Parameter
  • Drying Onion Grinding Machine (Capacity 80-160 Mesh)
  • Dry Onion Powder Vacuum Packing Machine 
  • Onion Powder
  • Sterilization Machine 

USES FOR ONION POWDER

  • Meat Rubs
  • Bloody Marry Drinks
  • Spice Mixes
  • Dressings 

ONION SEED PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES 

  • Environmental requirements for onion seed production 
  • Cultivars
  • Temperature
  • Rainfall
  • Soils
  • Pollination
  • Methods of onion seed production
  • Bulb to seed method of onion seed production
  • Mother bulb production
  • Inappropriate broad leaved and appropriate dry grass for covering seed beds 
  • Grass cover removed after emergence on raised beds
  • Preconditions and transpianting of seedlings
  • Seedling stage
  • Good qualities, disease free seedlings on raised beds and ready for transplant
  • Bed irrigation
  • Trimming
  • Furrow/irrigated beds before uprooting and lightly trimmed seedlings
  • Ridges preparation and field pre irrigation before transplanting
  • Field pre irrigation
  • Transplanting/spacing 
  • Bombay red and Adama red
  • Fertilization
  • Crop Management After Transplanting 
  • Irrigation
  • Weeding/Cultivation
  • Protection
  • Disease free and quality onion bulb productions
  • Mother Bulb Harvesting, Selection and Storage 
  • Maturity
  • Bulb harvesting and curing
  • Cutting necks from bulb after curing 
  • Appropriate cutting height of neck from bulb 
  • Bulb selection and large bulb rejected
  • Bulbs rejected split, and whitish bulbs
  • Bulb selection
  • Bulb storage
  • True Seed Production
  • Quality and true to type bulbs selected and stored under good storage condition
  • Bulb planting time
  • Isolation
  • Land preparation
  • Planting/spacing
  • Fertilizer
  • Irrigation
  • Weeding
  • Pest control in onion 
  • Pollination
  • Harvesting
  • Symptom of Purple blotch (Altermaria pom) on onion 
  • Symptom of bulb rot (Sclerotium cepivorum) on  onion
  • Quality onion seed production field, protected from diseases and insects 
  • Onion thrips (Thrips tabaci and its damage symptom on onion leaves
  • Early damage symptom of downy mildew (Peronospors destructor) on onion
  • Flowering onion pollinated by honey bees during the noon time
  • Drying umbels
  • Seed extraction
  • A mature umbel ready for harvest
  • Drying of the seed umbels under shade
  • Seed drying
  • Mowing and winnowing of umbels
  • Soaking of seed with clean water
  • Seed Storage
  • Seed quality inspection and timings
  • Separating clean seeds from light seeds and chaffs
  • Seed stored in a sack
  • Seed standard for onion seed production (FAO quality declared seed standards)

PROCESS OF PRODUCING LARGE DEHYDRATED ONION PIECES

  • Vertical axial section of a raw, unpeeled onion as received from the grower 
  • An onion heart that has been peeled, rooted, and topped, as for conventional slicing and, in expanded view, rings for French frying cut therefrom
  • A peeled onion and, in expanded view, random quarters cut therefrom and typical shells or pieces of onion layer formed from a quarter and 
  • An enlarged scale, a single shell and the epidermis and flesh portions thereof 

PROCESS FOR CONTROLLING THE PINKING OF ONIONS 

  • Elevation view of a three stage onion dryer illustrating an apparatus for spraying the onion pieces with a basic solution before entering the dryer
  • Portion of the first stage of a dryer 

DRYING TECHNOLOGIES

  • The onion model for Drying Technology
  • Onion model for drying technology
  • Dryer
  • Pinch analysis
  • Heat and mass transfer approach in pinch technique for drying
  • Production of animal feed before and after modifications according to results of pinch analysis 

INFRARED DRYING OF ONION 

MICROWAVE DRYING OF ONION SLICES

  • Material and Methods
  • Materials
  • Measurement of initial Moisture Content
  • Microwave Drying Characteristics Water loss 
  • Mass reduction
  • Microwave drying of onion 
  • Moisture Diffusivity
  • Quality evaluation
  • Colour measurement
  • Water activity
  • Rehydration ratio
  • Specific energy consumption
  • Results and Discussion
  • Microwave drying of onion slices 
  • Moisture Diffusivity of onion slices 
  • Effective moisture  diffusivity of onion slices during microwave drying 
  • Effect of process parameter on quality
  • Lightness of microwave dried onion slices 
  • Water activity
  • Rehydrational characteristics of microwave dried onion slices 
  • Water activity (aw) of microwave dried onion slices 
  • Specific Energy Consumption
  • Specific energy consumption of Osmo microwave and microwave dried onion slices at different power levels
  • Conclusion
  • Notations Used 

PROCESS OPTIMISATION OF VACUUM DRYING OF ONION SLICES 

  • Material and Methods
  • Sample preperation
  • Experimental design and statistical analysis 
  • Experimental design for vacuum drying of onion slice 
  • Final moisture content
  • Colour in terms of nonenzymatic browning
  • Flavour in terms of thiosulphinate content
  • Rehydration ratio
  • Results and discussion
  • Experimental combination for vacuum drying of onion slices for factorial design
  • Anova for the model selected and the responses 
  • Regression coefficients of the second order polynomials relating the responses with variables 
  • Final moisture content
  • Colour development
  • Flavour content
  • Contour plots of moisture content for untreated dried  onion slices 
  • Rehydration ratio(RR)
  • Contour plots of colour change for untreated treated dried onion slices 
  • Optimisation
  • Contour plots of flavour content for untreated treated dried onion slices 
  • Conclusions
  • Contour plots of rehydration ratio for untreated treated dried onion slices 

PROCESS OF VACUUM TREATING ONIONS

APPARATUS FOR PEELING SKINS OFF THE BULBS OF ONIONS 

  • Pnion peeling apparatus for practicing the method 
  • Embodiment of a freating chamber in which slitting and air blowing processes are done
  • Plan view of an embodiment of a slitter 
  • Elevation of an air blowing device
  • Enlarged perspective view of the slitter line showing the detailed structure

MAGNETIC DRIVEN ONION PEELER

  • Product description
  • Characteristics in short
  • Economic impact
  • Innovation
  • Technology
  • Quality
  • Productivity
  • Sustainability
  • Capacity
  • Product requirements
  • Technical Data
  • Motor power needed total
  • Drive of cup chain and peeling wheel
  • Centrifugal ventilator 
  • Voltage motors (standard)
  • Volume of air 
  • Weight

FLAVORING MATERIAL PREPARED FROM ONIONS 

  • Examples

PYRUVATE ENRICHED ONION EXTRACT 

  • Schematic representation of one embodiment
  • Preparation of the Extract
  • Characterization of the Extract
  • Antioxidant Activity
  • Inhibition (%) of AbTS Radical Generation
  • Total reducing power 
  • ORAC in terms of B Carotene retention
  • Bioactivity and Toxicity in Mice Hepatocytes
  • Cell assay data 

ONION EXTRACT FOR TREATING DAMAGED SKIN TISSUE

  • Onion Extract
  • Fat (Oil) Phase
  • Emulsifiers
  • W/O Emulsifiers
  • O/W Emulsifiers
  • Additives
  • Additional Active Ingredients
  • Customary Additives
  • Medicinal Application Observations with Patients with a Very Wide Variety of Scars
  • Medicinal Application Observation for the Prevention and Treatment of Stretch Marks

ONIONS WITH HIGH STORAGE ABILITY

  • Plant Development
  • Plant Having Low Pungency and High SSC
  • Storage decay

PACKAGING OF ONION PRODUCTS 

  • Onion Bags
  • Rigid Packages
  • Onion Pre-packs
  • Bulk Storage
  • Storage at Low Temperature
  • Recommended refrigerated storage conditions for onion bulb
  • Recommended refrigerated storage conditions for Spring (green) onion
  • Onion Storage at High-temperature
  • Direct Harvest Storage
  • Environmental regimes used during direct harvest storage system
  • CA Storage of Onions
  • Recommended controlled atmosphere composition for storage of onion bulbs 
  • Recommended controlled atmosphere composition for storage of Spring (green) onions

ONION WASTE TREATMENT

  • Materials and methods
  • Feedstock
  • Seed Inoculum
  • Table 26.1 Onon Wastes Characterization
  • Table 28.2 Inoculum characterization
  • Methods
  • Experimental Studies
  • Results and discussion
  • Conclusions

PLANT ECONOMICS OF ONION AND GARLIC POWDER WITH GRAPE DEHYDRATION (RAISINS)

  • Plant & Machinery
  • Fixed Capital
  • Raw Materials
  • Total Working Capital/Month
  • Total Capital Investment
  • Turn Over/Annum

PLANT ECONOMICS OF ONION DEHYDRATION

  • Plant & Machinery
  • Fixed Capital
  • Raw Materials
  • Total Working Capital/Month
  • Total Capital Investment
  • Turn Over/Annum

PLANT ECONOMICS OF ONION, GARLICS AND GINGER DEHYDRATION PLANT

  • Plant & Machinery
  • For Onion Powder
  • for Garlic Powder
  • for Ginger Powder
  • Fixed Capital
  • Raw Materials
  • for Onion Powder
  • for Garlic Powder
  • for Ginger Powder
  • Total Working Capital/Month
  • Total Capital Investment
  • Turn Over/Annum

PLANT ECONOMICS OF POTATO AND ONION FLAKES

  • Plant & Machinery
  • Fixed Capital
  • Raw Materials
  • Total Working Capital/Month
  • Total Capital Investment
  • Turn Over/Annum
  •  
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