Soaps are water-soluble sodium or potassium salts of fatty acids. Soaps are made from fats and oils, or their fatty acids, by treating them chemically with a strong alkali. Detergents, or washing powders, are type of detergent (cleaning agent) that is added for cleaning laundry. In common usage, "detergent" refers to mixtures of chemical compounds including alkylbenzenesulfonates, which are similar to soap but are less affected by hard water. In most household contexts, the term detergent refers to laundry detergent vs hand soap or other types of cleaning agents.
Most detergent is delivered in powdered form. Saponification of fats and oils is the most widely used soapmaking process. This method involves heating fats and oils and reacting them with a liquid alkali to produce soap and water (neat soap) plus glycerine.
The other major soapmaking process is the neutralization of fatty acids with an alkali. Fats and oils are hydrolyzed (split) with a high-pressure steam to yield crude fatty acids and glycerine. The fatty acids are then purified by distillation and neutralized with an alkali to produce soap and water (neat soap).
When the alkali is sodium hydroxide, a sodium soap is formed. Sodium soaps are "hard" soaps. When the alkali is potassium hydroxide, a potassium soap is formed. Potassium soaps are softer and are found in some liquid hand soaps and shaving creams.
The carboxylate end of the soap molecule is attracted to water. It is called the hydrophilic (water-loving) end. The hydrocarbon chain is attracted to oil and grease and repelled by water. It is known as the hydrophobic (water-hating) end.
The Perfume manufacturing industry is a very large industry that employs a number of experts with ongoing experiments and improvements. Perfumes today are being made and used in different ways than in previous centuries.
Because the sense of smell is a right brain activity, which rules emotions, memory, and creativity, perfume are now also being used to heal and make people feel good. Smelling sweet smells has a positive effect on one’s mood and helps to boost the immune system.
The Book contains following
The book Manufacture of Washing Soap, Toilet Soap, Detergent Powders, Liquid Soap & Herbal & Paste Detergents and Perfumes with Formulations covers Raw Materials for Soaps, Abrasive Cleaners, Formulations for Toilet Soap Manufacture, Fabric Softeners, Formulations of Perfumes, Fragrance Manufacture with Formulae, Liquid Soap, Liquid Detergents, Liquid and Paste Detergents (Herbal), Medicated Soap Manufacturing, Production of Soap, Production of Cake Soap and Washing Bar, Paste Detergents, Perfumes Manufacture,Perfumes used in Soap, Detergents, Disinfectants and Cosmetics, soap from Semi boiling Process, Solid Detergents with Formulae, Toilet Soap Manufacturing, Translucent Soap Manufacture, Toilet Preparations, Various Formulations for Manufacture of Soaps, Detergent Powder, Testing and Analysis, Packaging of Detergent Powder and Bars.