graphite mining and benefication plant

graphite mining and benefication plant
Author: EIRI Books
ISBN: PROJECT REPORT
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The mineral graphite  is one of the allotropes of carbon. It was named by Abraham Gottlob Werner in 1789 from the Ancient Greek γράφω (graphō), "to draw/write",for its use in pencils, where it is commonly called lead (not to be confused with the metallic element lead). Unlike diamond (another carbon allotrope), graphite is an electrical conductor, a semimetal. It is, consequently, useful in such applications as arc lamp electrodes. Graphite is the most stable form of carbon under standard conditions. Therefore, it is used in thermo chemistry as the standard state for defining the heat of formation of carbon compounds. Graphite may be considered the highest grade of coal, just above anthracite and alternatively called meta-anthracite, although it is not normally used as fuel because it is difficult to ignite. There are three principal types of natural graphite, each occurring in different types of ore deposit. Crystalline flake graphite (or flake graphite for short) occurs as isolated, flat, plate-like particles with hexagonal edges if unbroken and when broken the edges can be irregular or angular. Amorphous graphite occurs as fine particles and is the result of thermal metamorphism of coal, the last stage of coalification, and is sometimes called meta-anthracite. Very fine flake graphite is sometimes called amorphous in the trade. Lump graphite (also called vein graphite) occurs in fissure veins or fractures and appears as massive platy intergrowths of fibrous or acicular crystalline aggregates, and is probably hydrothermal in origin. Highly ordered pyrolytic graphite or highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) refers to graphite with an angular spread between the graphite sheets of less than 1°. This highest-quality synthetic form is used in scientific research. The name "graphite fiber" is also sometimes used to refer to carbon fiber or carbon fiber-reinforced polymer. Minerals associated with graphite include quartz, calcite, micas, iron meteorites, and tourmalines. Graphite has various other characteristics. Thin flakes are flexible but inelastic, the mineral can leave black marks on hands and paper, it conducts electricity, and displays superlubricity. Its best field indicators are softness, luster, density and streak. According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS), world production of natural graphite in 2008 was 1,110 thousand tonnes (kt), of which the following major exporters are: China (800 kt), India (130 kt), Brazil (76 kt), North Korea (30 kt) and Canada (28 kt). Graphite is not mined in US, but US production of synthetic graphite in 2007 was 198 kt valued at $1.18 billion. US graphite consumption was 42 kt and 200 kt for natural and synthetic graphite, respectively.

 

MARKET SURVEY CUM DETAILED TECHNO
ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY REPORT covers
 
Introduction
Uses and Applications
Properties
Market Survey with future aspects
Present Manufacturers
Detailed Process of Manufacture
Formulations
B.I.S. Specifications
Process Flow Sheet Diagram, Plant Layout,
Cost Economics with Profitability Analysis
Capacity
Land & Building Requirements with Rates
List & Details of Plant and Machinery with their Costs
Raw Materials Details/List and Costs
Power & Water Requirements
Labour/Staff Requirements
Utilities and Overheads
Total Capital Investment
Turnover
Cost of Production
Break Even Point
Profitability
Land Man Ratio
Suppliers of Plant & Machineries and Raw Materials
Cash Flow Statement
Repayment Schedule
Interest Chart
Depreciation Chart
Projected Balance Sheet for 5 Years etc

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