hand book of biotechnology

hand book of biotechnology
Author: EIRI Books
ISBN: 9788186732847
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HAND BOOK OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

BIOTECHNOLOGY: AN OVERVIEW

Definitions
Historical Background
Scope and Importance of Biotechnology
Genetic Engineering
Tissue Culture
Protoplast Culture and Micropropagations
Biosensors, Biochips, Biofilms and Biosurfactents
Applications of Biotechnology to Agriculture
Plant Breeding
Improvement of quality and Productivity in horticulture
Specific Pathogen-free Plant production
Establishment of an efficient for virus Elimination in Meristem Cultures and Regeneration of High Quality plants
Nitrogen-Fixation
Increased Disease Resistance
Improved Quality of Plant Products
Biotechnology in Tree Improvement
Improved Resistance of Plants to stress
Improving Salt Tolerance and Biosaline Concept
Protein (or Enzyme) Engineering
Animal Diseases
Livestock Production
Recombinant DNA Technology and Rumen Bacteria
Improvement of Nutritive Value of Low Quality Feeds
Novel Food (Protein) Sources
Improvement of Environment
Research Promotion and Priorities in India
Bioinformatics
Gene Banking, Conservation and Exchange in India
Plant Molecular Biological Researches
Service Oriented
Infrastructural Facilities

RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY

Gene and Gene Function
Gene Transmission
Recombinant DNA Technology Definitions
Restriction Endonucleases
Type or Restriction Endonucleases
Nomenclature
Recognition Sequences
Cleavage Patterns
Modification of Cut Ends
Steps in Gene Cloning
Isolation of the Desired Gene
cDNA Library
Genomic Library
Chemical Synthesis of Gene
Gene Amplification Through Polymerase Chain Reaction
Vectors
Cloning and Expression Vectors
E.Coli Vectors
Properties of a Good Host
Plasmids
Plasmid Vectors
pSC101
pBR322
pUC7
Bacteriophage Vectors
Phage M 31 Vectors
Cosmid Vectors
Phasmid Vectors
Vectors for Other Bacteria
Shuttle Vectors
Yeast Vectors
Plasmid Vectors
ARS Vectors
Mini chromosome Vectors
Artificial Chromosome Vectors
Vectors for Animals
SV 40 Vectors
Bovine Papillomavirus (BPV) Vectors
Restrovirus Vectors
Vectors for Plants
Integration of the DNA Insert into the Vector
Both Ends Cohesive and Compatible
Both Ends Cohesive and Separately Matched
Both Ends Cohesive and Unmatched
Both Ends Flush/Blunt
One End Cohesive and Compatible. The Other End Blunt
Introduction of the Vector Into a Suitable Host
Increased Competence of E.coli by CaCl2 Treatment
Infection by Vectors Packaged as Virions
Selection of Recombinant Clones
Selection of Clones Containing Recombinant Vectors
Elimination of Non transformed Cells
Selection of the Clone containing A Specific DNA Insert
Multiplication Expression and Integrationof the DNA Insert in Host Genome

PLANT TISSUE CULTURE: PRINCIPLES AND METHODOLOGY

Importance of Tissue Culture Technique
History of Plant Tissue Culture Researches
Tissue Culture Researches In India
Plant Tissue Culture Principles
Callus Culture
Meristem Culture
Organ Culture
The concept of Tetiopotency of Cells
Contrasts between Plant and Animal Cells
The Autonomous Organelles Their Behaviour During Growth Induction and Morphogenesis
Sites and Modes of Action of Growth Regulating Substances
The Behaviour of Carrof cells in vitro
Clonal development from Animal and Plant Cells
Plant Tissue Culture:Methods
Media Preparation: Area/Room
Cabinets or Sheives
Culture Media, Washing Powder/Liquid Detergent, Disinfectants
Other requirements
Aseptic Transfer Chamber Area
Environmentally controlled culture room
Analytical Room
Acclimatization Room
Miscellaneous Items
Specification of Laboratory Equipments
Aseptic Technique
Sterilisation of Plant tissues
Cleaning (preparation of Glasswares/Plastic wares (Autoclavable)
Sterilisation
Surfactants
Control of Bacterial and Fungal Contaminants by Antibiotics in Plant tissue culture
In Vitro Environment
Pretreatment of Explant Tissues Prior to Culture
Procedure
Sterilisation procedure may be enhanced by
Procedure
Isolation of Plant Material
Age of the Plant Tissue
Cellus Tissue and Orgnogenesis
Suspension Cell Culture from Callus in vitro
Micropropagation through Organogenesis
Culture Media and Preparation
Media Components
Inorganic Salts
Plant Growth Regulators
Carbon Source
Gelling Agents
Amino Acids and Amids
Antibiotics
Natural Complexes
Additional Requirements
Sterilization of Media
Use and Storage of Coconut Water
Related Procedure Ultraviolet Light
Preparation of Phenol
Working with 32p Labelled  Compounds
Silanization of Plastic and Glasswares
Preparation of Dialysis Tubing
Initiation of Embryogenesis of Suspension Culture
Materials
Method
Initiation of Embryogenic tissue
Establishment of Embryogenic Suspension Culture
Maturation of Embryos
Important Parameters for Consideration
Different Causes of Failures (and Remedies)

SYNTHETIC SEEDS

The Natural Seed
Development of the Concepts of tissue culture and Artificial seeds
Discovery of Synthetic Seeds
Uses and Limitations of Artificial Seeds
Potential uses of Artificial Seeds
Production of Synthetic Seeds
Encapsulation of Coating of Synthetic Seed
Gel Complexation via a Dropping procedure
Automate Encapsulation Process
Mass Balance Concept
Steps of Commercial Artificial Seed Production
Hydrogel Encapsulation of Artificial Seeds
Synthetic Seed and Forest Trees

BIOTECHNOLOGY METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT

The Green Revolution
Breeding objectives
Basic Problems in Development of Useful Crop Varieties
Improvement of Existing and New Cultivated Plants
Plant Breeding and Concepts of Crop Improvement
Methods of Crop Improvement
Cell Fusion Method
Somatic Cell Hybridization
Somaclonal Variation
Organ Culture Techniques
Through Genetic Engineering
Gene Transfer by Manipulating DNA Directly
Agrobacterium mediated Gene Transfer
Direct DNA Transfer Technology
Microinjection
Virally Mediated Gene Transfer
Gene controlled Crop Yield
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms
Detection of Nucleic Acid sequence
A Shopping list of genes
Organellar and Crop Improvement
Genes for disease Resistance
Transposon
Site, Specific mutagenesis
Breakthrough in the Development of Neurotoxin-Free
Lathyrus sativus
Development of Salt Tolerant Varieties
Applications of Tissue Culture in Increasing Salt Tolerance
Future Trends in Plant Breeding
Possible Application of Biotechnology in Nematode Management
Embryo Rescue Technique
Protoplast Fusion
Recombinant DNA Technology
Biocontrol Strategies
Nematode Physiology
Nematode Taxonomy
Culturing of Plant Parasitic Nematodes

TRANSGENIC PLANTS

 How to develop Transgenic Plants
Agrobacterium Mediated Gene Transfer
Vectors for Agrobacterium Mediated Plant Transformation
Cointegrating Vectors
Binary Vectors
Selectable Markets for Plant Transformation
Transformation of Plants
Herbicide Resistance
Engineered Resistance against Herbicide
Modification of the target
Resistance against glyphosate
Resistance against sulfonylurea and imidazolinone herbicides
Resistance against Phosphinothricin
Resistance against Atrazine
Detoxification or degradation or herbicide
Engineered Resistance against Pest and Insects
Bacillus thuringiensis Endo Toxins
Protease inhibitors
Gene for other insecticidal Secondary Metabolites
Disease Resistance
Post  Harvest Management
Engineered Resistance against Viral Infection
Cross Protection
Gene of Virus Coat
Antisense RNA Mediated Protection
Satellite RNA and its use for transformation
Defective interfering RNA/DNA Protection
Replicase Mediated Protection
Engineered Resistance against fungal Pathogen
Genetic Engineering and Plant Lipids
Genetic Engineering and Storage proteins

ENZYME TECHNOLOGY

Introduction
Enzymes vs. Catalysts
Enzymes Vs. Whole Cells
Production of Enzymes
Classification and Nomenclature
Chemical Energetics
Thermodynamic Properties
Kinetic Properties
Mechanism enzyme action
Enzymes Kinetics
Extremozymes
Nontraditional Enzymes
Abzymes
Ribozymes
Methods of Immobilisation on Enzyme
Advantages of Immobilisation
Disadvantages of Immobilisation
Uses of Enzymes in solution
Detergents
Leather Industries
Wood Industries
Glucose from Cellulose
Food, Dairy, Juice and Bevarages Industries
Production of Glucose Syrup
Maltose Syrup
Sucrose Industry
Uses in Medicine
Aspartame Synthesis
Biphasic Systems
Aqueous Two Phase Systems
Aqueous Organic Biphasic Systems
Uses of Immobilised Enzymes
High Fructose Corn Syrup
Immobilised Raffinase
Immobilised Invertase
Immobilised Lactase
Antiblotic Production
Preparation of Acrylamide
Enzyme Reactors
Stirred Tank Reactors
Membrance Reactors
Continuous Flow reactors
Biosensors
General Features
Types of Biosensors
Colorimetric Test Strips
Commercial Potential
Enzyme Engineering
Objective of Enzyme Engineering
Principles of Enzyme Engineering
Examples of Enzyme Engineering
Bi- and Poly Functional Enzymes
Synzymes
Solvent Engineering
Safety and regulatory aspects
Allergy
Activity Related Toxicity Residual
Microbiological Activity

BIOTECHNOLOGY CROP IMPROVEMENT IN INDIA

India's Efforts
Conservation of Plant genetic Resources
Gemplasm Collection
Germplasm Exchange
Long term Conservation
Germplasm Evaluation
Germplasm Conservation
In Vitro Conservation by Tissue Culture
Application of Biotechnology to Rice Production
Development of Molecular Tools in Rice
Wheat
O'seed Crops
Commercial Crops
Standardisation of Multilocation Technique for Cashew
Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis)
Beverage Crops
Tea (Camellia sinensis)
Coffee (Coffea arabica)
Spices and Condiments
Cardamom (Ellettaria cardamommum Mation)
Pepper (Piper nigrum L)
Ginger (Zingiber officinals)
Tuber Crops
Sweet Potato (Ipomoss spp.)
Cassava (Manihot Spp)
Elephant Foot Yam (Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb) Blume)
Aroida (Colocasia)
Tissue Culture Technique for Aroids (Colocasla) Improvement
Minor Tuber Crops
Chinese Potato (Coleus perviflorus Benth)
Breeding Constraints
Fruit Crops
Banana (Musa Paradiaiaca L.)
Mango (mengifera indica L.)
Citrus

BIOTECHNOLOGY FORESTRY

Selection of Trees for Indian Forestry
Forest Resources
Specific Recent Technologies Relevant to Forestry
Microbial Breakdown of Cell Wall Components
Rapid Propagation of Some Forest Trees
Direct Someatic Embryogenesis from Immature Seeds of Rosewood (Dalbergia Latifolia Roxb.)
Micropropagation of Buteamonosperma (Lam) Taub
Applications of biotechnologies to Forest Soil Microbiology

BIOTECHNOLOGY AGRO INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT

The Fermentation Technology
How and Why do Microorganisms Make Alcohol?
Fermentation Technology
Downstream Processing
Purifying the Products
Fermenter Design Considerations
Materials of the Bioreactors
Selection of Microbes in Fermentation Industry
Fermentation Medium
Regulatory Mechanisms and Industrial Fermentations
Enzymes Fermentation
Induction of Fermentation Enzymes
Feedback Repression
Calabolic Repression
Hyperproduction by Deregulated Mutantsgene Dosage
Production of Alcoholic Beverages
Wine
Beer
Whiskey
Miso
Organic Acid Fermentation
Uses of Citric Acid
Mechanism of Citric Acid Formation
Commercial Production of Citric Acid
Gluconic Acid
D-Lactic Acid
Gallic Acid
Fumaric Acid
Haconic Acid
Glycerol
Vitamins
Vitamin B Complex
Vitamin C
Vitamin D
Commercial Production of Antibiotics
Screening of antibioic Producers
Penicillin
Commercial Production of Penicillin
Procedure
Penicillin Biosynthesis
Streptomycin
Cephalosporins
Variotin
Animal Feed Types
Incorporation of Feed Additives
Feed Medication Routes
Development of a New Active Ingredient
Medicinal Premix Product Development
Distribution of Medicated Feed Additives
Future Development

BIOTECHNOLOGY BIOMASS NENERGY

Composition of Biomass
Cellulose
Hemicellulose
Lignin
Types of Biomass
Salvinia
Water Hyacinth (Eicchornia crassipes)
Wastes as Renewable Source of Energy
Types of Wastes
Classification Based on Chemical Nature
Classification Based on Physical State
Composition of Wastes
source of Wastes
Agriculture
Methods for Energy ProductionBariquelling
Liquetacion (The Biological proess (Bioconversion)
Enzymatic Digestion
Degradation of Cellulose
Degradation of Hemicellulose
Anaerobic Digestion
Aerobic Digestion
Hydrolysis of Wood Ethanol
Ethanol Production for Energy
Conversion of Methane (into the Synthetic Gas Factors Affecting Methane Formation
The Expeenses  of India and China
Energy and Fuel Using Microoganisms
Poduction of Hydrogen
Petroplants
Hevea Rubber
Euphorbia
Guayule and Russian Dan dandelion
Ask (Calotropic process0
Algal Hydrocarbons

FOOD AND BEVERAGES

Introduction
Fermented Foods
Problems in Solid Substrate Fermentation
Advantages  of Fermented Foods
The Process
Cheese production
Coagulum Formation
Separation of Gurd
Ripening
Use of engymes in  Food Industry
Use of Proteases in Food Processing
Uses of Glucose Oxidase and Calalase
Use of Lactase in Dairy Industry
Enzymes in Fruit Juice and Brewing Industries
Fruit Juices and Wines
Beer
Microbial Biomass
Mushrooms
Agricus bisporus
Pleurotus spp.
Advantages of Mushrooms
Single Cell Protein
Micro organisms
Substrates
Production of SCP
Biomass Recovery
Nutritional and Safely Evaluations

FUEL BIOTECHNOLOGY

Introduction
Useful Features of Biofuels
Undessirable Features of Biofuels
Areas for future Research Focus
Energy Crops
Wood
Sugar and Starch Crops
Hydrocarbon Producing Crops
Modes of Utilisation of Biomass
Biogas
The Substrate
The Digester
The Micro organisms
Factors Affecting Biogas Yields
Precautions
Advantages
Disadvantages
Bioethanol
Bioethanol vs. Petrol
Production of Bioethanol
Ethanol Recovery
Future Directions for Research and Development
Biobutanol
Biodiesel
Lipids As a Source of biodiesel
Biodiesel from Hydrocarbons
Biohydrogen
Anaerobic Bacteria
Photosynthetic Algas
In Vitro Photosynthetic Hydrogenase System

PLANT ECONOMICS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE

Land and Building
Plant and Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/ Annum

PLANT ECONOMICS OF BIOFERTILIZERS FROM COWDUNG

Land and Building
Plant and Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/ Annum

PLANT ECONOMICS OF BIOFERTILIZERS FROM WASTE

Land and Building
Plant and Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/ Annum

PLANT ECONOMICS OF BIOFERTILIZERS FROM GARBAGE (MSW)

Land and Building
Plant and Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/ Annum

PLANT ECOKNOMICS OF ETHANOL (BIOFUEL) FROM MOLASSES

Land and Building
Plant and Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/ Annum

PLANT ECONOMICS OF FLORICULTURE(CUT FLOWER ROSE WITH GREEN HOUSE TECHNOLOGY

Land and Building
Plant and Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/ Annum

PLANT ECONOMICS OF HYBRID  SEEDS

Land and Building
Plant and Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/ Annum


PLANT ECONOMICS OF jATROPHA (BIO-DIESEL) CULTIVATION & EXTRACTION

Land and Building
Plant and Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/ Annum

PLANT ECONOMICS OF ORGANIC MANURE

Land and Building
Plant and Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/ Annum

PLANT ECONOMICS OF PROFTEIN AND PROTEIN BASED PRODUCTS

Land and Building
Plant and Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/ Annum


PLANT ECONOMICS OF TISSUE CULTURE  (100% E.O.U.)

Land and Building
Plant and Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/ Annum

PLANT ECONOMICS OF VERMI COMPOSTING

Land and Building
Plant and Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/ Annum

SUPPLIERS OF PLANT AND MACHINERIES

Autoclaves
Bag Filling Machinery
Blowers
Boilers Industrial
Bucket Elevator
Chemical Plant Machinery
Cooling Towers
Distillation Columns & Towers
Dryers Fluid Bed
Granulators
Heat Exchanger
Incubators
Laboratory Equipment & Supplies
Laboratory Glassware
Mixers
Pulverisers
Screen Vibratory (Machinery) Silos
Storage Tank
Water Softening Systems
Weighing Scales

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