hand book of leather and leather products technology

hand book of leather and leather products technology
Author: EIRI Books
ISBN: 9.78819E+12
Availability: In Stock
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HAND BOOK OF LEATHER AND LEATHER PRODUCTS TECHNOLOGY

LEATHER PROCESSING

  • Introduction
  • Leather:Braving New Material World
  • Leather: Changing Demand Pattern
  • Customer Driven Changes of Market Economy Models
  • Driving Factors in Manufacturing
  • Driven by Access to Materials
  • Driven by Access to Market
  • Driven by Access to Technologies
  • Innovation Driven Manufacturing
  • Global Leather Processing Practices Influencing Issues
  • Linkages to Down Stream Industries
  • External Pressures from Environmental Perspectives
  • Cost Compulsions
  • Change Paradigms in Leather Processing
  • Atom Efficiences
  • Material Productivity Time and Labour Productivity
  • Approach Paradigms in Leather Processing
  • Biotechnology for Leather
  • Knowledge Network Approach
  • Bio & Ambient Preservation of Skin
  • Ambient Preservation of Skin/hide
  • Lead Enzymes for Lime and Sulfide free Processing of  Skin/hie
  • New Substrate for Assaying Enzyme Samples for Application in Leather Sector
  • Application of Recombinant DNA Routes for A Lead Enzyme Product
  • Lead Enzyme Products
  • Some Lead Products Under Commercial Evaluation
  • Concluding Remarks


RAW MATERIALS FORLEATHER PROCESSING

  • Choice of Raw Material
  • Vital Role of Selection
  • Variation in Quality
  • Ante Mortem Damages
  • Post Mortem Damages
  • Use of Preservatives
  • Classification
  • Details of Classification
  • Characteristics of Cow Hides of Different Origin
  • Agras
  • Bihar's cow Hides
  • Darbhanga
  • Katihar Kishinganj
  • Savan Chapra, Purnea Districts
  • Patna Districts
  • Bihar Shariff Districts
  • Gava Districts
  • Ranchi District
  • Bengal Hides
  • Nagoras
  • Desis
  • Haluas
  • Observations on The Hides from west Bengal
  • Matiabur Howra and Barrackpore Slaughter Hides
  • Assam Hides
  • Madras Hides
  • Andhra Hides
  • Bombay Hides
  • Cow Hides From Rajasthan
  • Miscellaneous
  • Buffalo Hides
  • Classification and Grading
  • Regional Classification
  • Punjab Haryana & Delhi Hides
  • Darbhanga, Muzaffarpur, Champaran Area
  • Siwan, Chapra, Purnea Area
  • Bhagalpur, Katihar, Kishangung Area
  • Patna Area
  • Bihar Sherif Area
  • Gaya Area
  • Ranchi Area
  • Bengal Buffaloes
  • 3 Goat Skins
  • Regional Classification
  • Punjab & Haryana
  • Uttar Pradesh
  • North Bihar & Bengal
  • Dinajpurs etc.
  • Deccans
  • southerns
  • Mumbai And Rajasthanies
  • Sheep Skins
  • Punjab Sheep
  • Bihar
  • Red Hair Sheep of Southern India
  • Mumbai
  • Miscellaneous
  • Increase in Raw Prices
  • Recent Development
  • Curing Processes Adopted in the Trade
  • Types of Cure
  • Salting
  • Drying:(a) Unframed Dry Hides (sukties)
  • (b) Dry Framed Hides
  • (c) Arsenicated Hides
  • Salt Cured
  • Use of Impure Salts
  • Use of Sambhar Salt
  • Khari Salt
  • Methods of Salt Curing
  • (A) Wet Salting
  • Storage Period
  • Dry Salting
  • Goat Skin Curing
  • Sheep Skin Curing
  • Assamese Practics
  • Practice in Other States
  • Other Methods of Preservation
  • Curing by Pickling
  • Never Techniques in Curing
  • Solvent Dehydration
  • Curing by Radiation
  • Curing by Fumigation
  • Read Heat
  • Soaking and Liming
  • Objects of Soaking
  • Removal of Proteins
  • Dimensional Changes
  • Soaking of Dry Goat Skins
  • Percentage Water Uptake
  • Advantages of Drumming
  • Soaking Heavy Hades
  • Soaking
  • Objects of Soaking
  • Factors Affecting the Soaking Operation
  • The Nature of the Raw Stock and the Type of Cure
  • The Type of Salt Used (if any) in Curing
  • Quality and Quantity of Water Used for Soaking
  • Temperature of the Soak Bath
  • Soaking Agents used, if any
  • pH
  • Use of Disinfectants or Bactericides
  • Influence of Agitation
  • Use of Wetting Agents
  • Typical Examples of Soaking Procedure
  • Type of Raw Stock Wet Salted Pit Soaking
  • Type of Stock Dry (fint dry) Hides Pit cum Drum Soaking
  • Lime Yard Operations
  • Effect on Proteins
  • Sweating
  • Sweating Chambers
  • Importance of Temperature and Humidiry
  • Use of Lime
  • Source of Lime
  • Action of Lime
  • Customary Liming Procedure
  • Qantity of Lime Used
  • Use of Old Limes
  • New Knowledge in Liming
  • Sodium and Porassium Hydrates
  • Sodium sulphide
  • Mechanism of Unhairing with Sodium Sulphide
  • Sodium Sulphydrate NaHS
  • Arsenic Sulphide
  • Reasons for Use of Arsenic Sulphide
  • Miscellaneous Chemicals (Sodium Cyanide) (Rarely Used)
  • Enzyme Unhairing
  • Advantages of the above Methods
  • Other Types
  • Enzyme for Dewooling
  • Role of Mechanical Action in Unhairing
  • Oxidative Unhairing
  • New Advantage in Oxidative Unhairing
  • Effects of Oxidative Unhairing
  • Other Advantage
  • Fleshing, Cheeking, Splitting, Rounding Fleshing
  • Cheeking
  • Spliting (Lime Splitting)
  • Rounding
  • Actual Liming Process
  • Object of Liming
  • Effect of Temperature in Liming
  • Sheep Skins
  • Where the Hair is to Be recovered
  • Where Lime Alone is used as a Paint
  • Cow Hides
  • Buffalo Hide
  • Acid Addition
  • B1 Sulphide: (Hydrosulphide)
  • Analysis and Properties of NaHS
  • Barium Sulphide Ba S
  • Enzyme Unhairing
  • Amine Unhairing (American Method)
  • Unhairing Process Pit Liming Process
  • Actual Operation of Unhairing
  • Improvement
  • Unhairing by Machine
  • Disadvantages
  • Amide Unhairing
  • Liming
  • Factors Influencing the Liming Process
  • The Type and Nature of Stock
  • The Type of Leathers Required to be Produced
  • The Quality and Quantity of Lime
  • The Addition of Sharpening Agents
  • The Quantity and Quality of Water
  • Quantity
  • Temperature
  • Agitation
  • Types of Liming
  • Pit Liming
  • Two Pits System
  • Three Pit System
  • Paste Liming (Paint Liming) Method
  • Paddle Liming
  • Drum Liming
  • Other Methods
  • Precautions in Liming Process
  • Reliming
  • Objects of Reliming
  • Quantity of Lime
  • Fleshing
  • Mechine Capacity, H.P.
  • Rounding
  • Deliming, Bating, Puering & Drenching Deliming
  • Objects of Deliming
  • Some Common Deliming Agents Used in Practice
  • Method of Deliming
  • Extent of Deliming
  • Some Equations of Deliming
  • Need for Deliming
  • Old  Practices
  • Effect of Mere Washing
  • Some Chemical Deliming Agents
  • Deliming Agents
  • Organic Acid
  • Formic Acid
  • Acetic Acid
  • Some Uncommon Deliming Agents Bating
  • Objects of Bating
  • Testing of Bated Pelts
  • Factors Influencing the Bating
  • The Nature of the Bate and its Concentration
  • Temperature
  • pH of the Pelt and Bath
  • Time
  • Method of Bating
  • Drenching
  • Conventional Drenching Process
  • Conventional Drenching Process
  • Puering
  • Early Bating Agents
  • Synthetic Bate
  • Trade Products
  • Bating Process
  • Type of Paddle Used
  • Need for Adjustments
  • Bating Pelts for Vegetable Tannage
  • Conditions of Bating
  • Main Enzyme Used  in India
  • Acid Wash
  • Drenching
  • Still Drench
  • Scudding
  • Pickling
  • Basic Principle
  • Use of Organic Salts
  • Dry Pickle
  • Depickling
  • Detailed Observation of Bating
  • Objective of Bating
  • Conditions of Bating
  • pH
  • Where to Bate
  • Scudding
  • Pickling for Preservation & Export
  • Dry Pickle
  • Depickling
  • Pickling
  • Functions of Acid in Pickle
  • Functions of Salt in Pickling
  • Common Systems of Pickle Bath
  • Types of Pickle
  • Equilibrium Pickle
  • Varieties of Pickle Based on Ingredients
  • Dry Pickle
  • Varieties of Pickling can be as Follows
  • Masked Pickle
  • Depickling
  • Tanning
  • Tanning Agents
  • Olden Methods Practised
  • Alum Tanning
  • Preparation of the Alum Tawing Paste
  • Vegetable Tanning
  • Classification of Vegetable Tanning Materials
  • Principle of Vegetable Tanning Process
  • Leaching
  • Dark Colour of Solid Extracts
  • Spray Drying of Extracts
  • Different Vegetable Tanning Materials
  • Quebracho
  • Wattle
  • Myrobalan
  • Avaram Bark (Turwar)
  • Babul Bark
  • Konnan Bark
  • Goran Bark
  • Chestnut
  • Gambler
  • Special Qualities of Gambier
  • Bleached Extracts
  • Practical Considerations in Vegetable Tanning
  • Tan Content
  • Non-Tans
  • T/NT Ratio
  • Acidity
  • Salt Content
  • Acid/Salt Ratio
  • pH.
  • Astringency
  • Factors Influencing Tanning
  • The Nature of the Pelt
  • The Nature of Leathers Required to be Produced
  • The Nature of the Tanning Materials Used
  • Concentration
  • pH
  • Agitation
  • Temperature
  • Time
  • Chrome Tanning
  • Principle of the Preparation of Chrome Tanning Salt
  • Mechanism and  Concept of Basicity
  • Preparation of Chrome Liquors
  • Testing for Reduction
  • Chemical Test
  • Other Reducing Agents Commonly Used
  • Conventional Practice of Chrome Tanning Procedure
  • Procedure
  • Factors Influencing Chrome Tanning
  • The Condition and Nature of the pelt
  • The Type of Leathers Required to be Produced
  • Concentration of Cr2O3 Basicity and Type of Chrome Liquor
  • Type of Chrome Liquors
  • pH
  • Time
  • Temperature
  • Agitation
  • Float
  • Nature and Quantity of Basifying Agent Used
  • Presence of Neutral Salt
  • Newer Developments in Chrome Tanning
  • Dry Chrome Tannage the Following Advantages are Claimed
  • Self Basifying Chrome Extract or Selt Basifying System of Tannage
  • Oil Tanning Process
  • Characteristics of the Oil
  • Characteristics of Oil Tanned Leathers
  • Principle of Oil Tanning for Chamols Leather
  • Lafter Developments in Oil Tanning
  • Formaldehyde Tanning
  • Principle of Formaldehyde Tanning
  • Formaldehyde Tanning for Picker Saver Leathers
  • Important Points to Remember in Formaldehyde Tanning
  • Synthetic Tannings
  • Use of Syntans
  • Classification of Syntans
  • Auxiliary Syntans
  • Properties
  • Combination Syntans
  • Replacement Syntans
  • Properties
  • Zirconium Tannage
  • Some Important Mechanical Operations After Tanning
  • Post Tanning Operations Neutralisation
  • The Object of Neutralising
  • Combination Tannages
  • Mordanting & Dyeing
  • Use of Mordants
  • Metallic Mordants
  • Other Mordants
  • Dyeing Formaldehyde Leathers
  • Mordants for Chrome Leathers
  • Vegetable Dyes
  • Dyeing
  • Types of Dyes
  • Acid Dyes
  • Basic Dyes
  • Direct Dyes
  • Chrome Mordant Dyes
  • Testing of Dyes
  • Fastness and Other Properties 

DRYING AND FINISHING

  • Drying  of Leather
  • Different Condition for Different Methods
  • Paste Drying
  • Pasting Unit
  • Duration of Drying
  • Drying Chamber
  • Factors Involved in Drying
  • Application of Paste
  • Pasting and Drying
  • Pasting Formulation and Other Conditions
  • Ingredients for Paste
  • Rate of Drying
  • Typical Conditions of Temperature and humidity
  • Interpreting the Condition
  • Location of Exhausts
  • A More Economical Units
  • Other Dryers
  • Vaccum Drying
  • Finishing
  • Different Methods
  • Pigment Finishing
  • Different Shades in Finishing
  • Selection of A Pigment
  • Pigment Dispersions
  • Aniline Finishing
  • Binders
  • Casein
  • Shellac
  • Other Materials
  • Resin Finishing
  • Acrylic
  • Synthetic Rubbers
  • Scope for Use Non Aqueous Leather Finishing System
  • Lacquer Finishing
  • Cellulose Nitrate
  • Plasticisers
  • Solvents
  • Coloured Lacquers
  • Vinyl and Other Finishes
  • Equipment
  • Curtain Coater
  • Automatic Spray Equipment
  • Hand Spray
  • Leather Made out of Different Raw Materials
  • Type of Leathers
  • Special Note
  • Special Instructions if any
  • Basis of Cleaner Processing Technology
  • Environmentally Friendly Chemicals for Leather Processing
  • Approaches to Solve the Problem Areas Possible Remedial Measures
  • Alternative Methods
  • Neutral Salt Buildup
  • Chrome Tanning
  • Dyes
  • Fat Liquors
  • Finishing
  • Allied Aspects
  • Bye Products
  • Bulk Volume Solid Wastes
  • Effluent Collection, Treatment & Disposal
  • Characteristics of the Effluents
  • Ways & Means to Reduce the Volume and Intensity of Tannery Effluents
  • Treatment of Waste from Tanneries
  • Segregation
  • Primary Treatment
  • Secondary Treatment
  • Anaerobic Lagoon
  • Aerated Lagoon
  • Oxidation Ditch
  • Major Problems Involved in Treatment of Tanning Wastes
  • Selection of Suitable Treatment Technology
  • Future Outlook
  • Solid Waste Utilisation
  • Goat Hair
  • Sheep Wool
  • Fleshing & Raw Trimmings
  • Crust Trimmings
  • Vegetable Tanned Splits
  • Vegetable Tanned Leather Waste
  • Lime Sludge
  • Split Waste
  • Chrome Shavings
  • Buffing Dust
  • Economy of Water and Chemicals and Emergy Efficiency
  • Technology in Water Management
  • Economy of Chemical Utilisation
  • Energy


LEATHER MANUFACTURE

  • Introduction
  • Special Features  of the  Leather Industry
  • Technical Feasibility Appraisal  and Project Reports
  • Financial Aspects
  • Working Capital Requirements
  • Overheads
  • Profitability
  • Technical Aspects
  • Cost of the Project will be indicated as follows
  • Margin Money for the working capital will include
  • Selection of Personnel/Training
  • Purchase of Raw Materials
  • Break up of the Cost of Products
  • Need  for Quality Control and Standards
  • Quality Assessement of Grading of Leathers
  • Utilisation of Bye Products
  • Effluent Treatment A Social Obligation
  • Management & Marketing
  • Need for Quality Control and Standards


VEGETABLE TANNINS

  • Hydrolysable
  • Condensed
  • Medical Properties
  • Other Properties
  • Criteria Material Selection
  • Indian Tanning Materials and their Potential
  • Tannin Extracts
  • Manufacture of Tannin Extracts
  • Selection of the Raw Materials
  • Size Reduction (Crushing/Grinding)
  • Leaching (Extraction of Tannins)
  • Open Vat Extraction
  • Rotary System of Extraction
  • Autoclaving
  • Open Vat with Archimedean Screw
  • Vacuum Leaching (Nance Process)
  • Gas Lift Agitation Process
  • Settling and Filtration
  • Concentration (Evaporation)
  • Bleaching
  • Solid Extract
  • Powder Extract
  • Packaging
  • Solid and Liquid Wastes from Extract Manufacturing Units 

VEGETABLE DYES

  • Sources of Natural Dyes
  • Occurrence
  • Classification of Dyes
  • Advantages of Vegetables Dyes
  • Dye Yielding Plants of India
  • General Methods of Preparation
  • Leather Dyes from Vegetable Source

PREPARATION OF CHROME LIQUOR

  • Chrome Liquor of 331/3rd Basicity
  • Chrome Liquor
  • Tests for Complete Reduction
  • Preparation of Common Indicators Used in Tannery



PHYSICAL TESTING OF LEATHERS

  • Tensile Strength
  • Elongation
  • Breaking Strength
  • Tearing Strength
  • Tongue Tear
  • Split Tear
  • Buckle Tear
  • Stitch Tear
  • Cracking
  • Piping
  • Resistance to Perspiration
  • Grain Crack and Brusting Strength
  • Abrasion Resistance
  • Flexibility
  • Compressibility and Resiliency
  • Shrinkage Temperature
  • Water Absorption
  • Water Penetration
  • Water Vapour Permeability
  • Air Permeability
  • Real and Apparent Densities
  • Apparent Density
  • Real Density
  • Special Tests for the Finishing or Surface Properties Crocking
  • Staining
  • Bleeding
  • Tackiness
  • Lightfastness
  • Sole
  • Upper
  • Belting
  • Chamois
  • Clothing
  • Glove
  • Picking Band
  • Seal and Washer Leathers
  • Gas Meter Leather
  • Various Other Chemicals L.R.Quality
  • Commercial Chemicals, etc.
  • Physical Testing Laboratory
  • Chemical Testing
  • Chemicals (A.R. Grade)
  • Chemicals (Commercial)
  • Physical Testing Equipment/Apparatus
  • Miscellaneous
  • Suppliers of Indigenous Testing Machines
  • Physical Testing Equipment/Apparatus (Imported)
  • Miscellaneous 

MANUFACTURE OF EXOTIC LEATHER FROM RAY FISH

  • Introduction
  • Ray Fish
  • Process
  • Physical Testing
  • Results 

FORMALDEHYDE FREE FINISHING RECIPE FOR GLAZED KID LEATHER

  • Introduction
  • Detection of HCHO
  • Importance of Formaldehyde in Leather Manufacture
  • Importance of Formaldehyde in Glaze Kid
  • Aromatic Syntans
  • Formaldehyde Free Syntans
  • Free Formaldehyde Content of Commercial Resin Tanning Agents
  • Permissible Limits of Formaldehyde
  • Introduction
  • Properties of Glaze Kid Leathers
  • Physical Requirements of Glazed Kid Leather Indian  Standards (Minimum)
  • Chemical Requirements of Glazed Kid Leather Indian Standards
  • Finishing Recipe for Formaldehyde Free Glaze Kid Leather Clear Coat Clear Coat
  • Conclusion

CANVAS SHOES

  • Introduction
  • Processes of Manufacture
  • Machinery and Equipments
  • Raw Material (per month)
  • Capital Investment
  • Turnover /Annum

SHOE UPPER LEATHER

  • Introduction
  • Processos of Manufacture
  • Machinery and Equipments
  • Raw Material
  • Fixed Capital
  • Total Working Capital (Per Month)
  • Total Capital Investment
  • Turnover Per Annum

PVC FOOTWEAR

  • Introduction
  • Processes of Manufacture
  • The Main Operation are
  • Quality Control and Standards
  • Production Capacity
  • Fixed Capital
  • Machinery and Equipments
  • Raw Materials
  • Working Capital (Per Month)
  • Total Capital Investment
  • Turnover (Per Annum)


INDUSTRIAL HAND GLOVES

  • Introduction
  • Processes of Manufacture
  • Production Capacity
  • Fixed Capital
  • Machinery and Equipments
  • Raw Material Including Packing Requirements
  • Total Working Capital (Per Month)
  • Total Capital Investment
  • Turnover (Per Annum)


LEATHER CHAPPALS

  • Introduction
  • Processes of Manufacture
  • Machinery and Equipments
  • Raw Material
  • Fixed Capital
  • Total Recurring Expenditure (Per Month)
  • Total Capital Investment
  • Turnover (Per Annum)


LEATHER GARMENTS

  • Introduction
  • Processes of Manufacture
  • Quality Control and Standards
  • Standards Related to Leather Garments Industry and Related Items
  • Production Capacity
  • Machinery and Equipments
  • Raw Material
  • Fixed Capital
  • Working Capital (Per Month)
  • Total Capital Investment
  • Turnover/Annum)


LEATHER SANDAL WITH P.U. SOLE

  • Introduction
  • Processes of  Manufacture
  • Quality Control and Standards
  • Production Capacity (Per Annum)
  • Pollution Control
  • Energy Conservation
  • Machinery and Equipments
  • Raw Materials
  • Fixed Capital
  • Working Capital (Per Month)
  • Capital Investment
  • Turnover/Annum


LEATHR  TRAVELLING BAG

  • Introduction
  • Processes of Manufacture
  • Quality Control and Standards
  • Production Capacity (Per Annum)
  • Motive Power
  • Machinery and Equipments
  • Tools and Equipments and Other Fixed Assets
  • Raw Material Including Packaging Materials
  • Fixed Capital
  • Working Capital (Per Month)
  • Capital Investment
  • Turnover/Annum


LEATHER WAIST BELT

  • Introduction
  • Processes of Manufacture
  • Quality Control and Standards
  • Production Capacity
  • Motive Power
  • Machinery and Equipments
  • Raw Materials (Per Month)
  • Fixed Capital
  • Working Capital (Per Month)
  • Capital Investment
  • Turnover/Annum


MANUFACTURING OF BATTING GLOVES

  • Introduction
  • processes of Manufacture
  • Production Capacity
  • Pollution Control
  • Energy Conservation
  • Machinery and Equipments
  • Raw Material(Per Pair)
  • Fixed Capital
  • Working Capital (Per Month)
  • Capital Investment
  • Turnover/Annum

 

SHOWER PROOF GARMENT LEATHER


  • Introduction
  • Processes of Manufacture
  • Flat Liquoring and Dyeing
  • Quality Control and Standards
  • Production Capacity
  • Pollution Control
  • Energy Conservation
  • Plant and Machinery
  • Raw Materials
  • Fixed Capital
  • Working Capital (Per Month)
  • Capital Investment
  • Turnover/Annum

SUEDE LEATHER

  • Introduction
  • Process of Manufacture
  • Quality Control and Standards
  • Cost Estimation
  • Pollution Control
  • Energy Conservation
  • Fixed Capital
  • Working Capital
  • Working Capital (Per Month)
  • Capital Investment
  • Turnover/Annum


UPHOLSTERY LEATHER

  • Introduction
  • Process of Manufacture
  • Quality Control and Standards
  • Cost Economics
  • Production Capacity
  • Pollution Control
  • Energy Conservation
  • Machinery and Equipments
  • Raw Materials
  • Fixed Capital
  • Working Capital/Month
  • Total Capital Investment
  • Turnover/Annum


CRICKET BALL (LEATHER)

  • Introduction
  • Manufacturing Process
  • Quality Specification
  • Production Capacity (p.a.)
  • Pollution Control
  • Energy Conservation
  • Fixed Capital
  • Machinery and Equipments
  • Raw Materials (Per Month)
  • Fixed Capital
  • Working Capital (Per Month)
  • Capital Investment
  • Turnover/Annum 

FOOTBALL (LEATHER)

  • Introduction
  • Processes Outline
  • Quality Specification
  • Production  Capacity
  • Motive  Power
  • Requirement
  • Machinery and Equipments
  • Machinery Utilisation
  • Raw Materials
  • Fixed Capital
  • Working Capital/Month
  • Capital Investment
  • Turnover/Annum


SCHOOL BAGS

  • Introduction
  • Process outline
  • Cost Estimation
  • Production Capacity (p.a.)
  • Financial Aspects
  • Machinery Utilisation
  • Machinery and Equipments
  • Raw Materials
  • Fixed Capital
  • Working Capital/Month
  • Capital Investment
  • Turnover/Annum 

INDIAN AND OVERSEAS TRADE DIRECTORY OF LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCTS, CHEMICALS AND MACHINERIES


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  • Identification of Plant /Process/Machinery and Equipment, Industrial General Guidance for setting up new industrial projects.


Our most up-to-date and Technologically Advanced Industrial Project Reports, categorized with respect to Financial Outlays and Sector – wise Classification are immensely useful for :

  • Existing Small or Medium Scale Industrialists facing competition from large houses
  • Young Entrepreneurs dreaming to start their own industrial enterprise
  • Young Graduates and Professionals wishing to begin their career
  • Industrialists interested in Debottlenecking  their capacities & New Product – Lines
  • Large Industrial Houses pursuing  Expansion, Growth and Diversification Plans
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