Start Industry in Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe has developed one of the most diverse economies in Africa. It has abundant agricultural and mineral resources and a well-developed industrial sector and infrastructure. Average annual growth during the first post-independence decade was2.9%, but declined by 6.5% in 2001. Problems abound, with an inflation rate of over 100% and the unemployment rate above 60% in 2001. A small white elite continues to dominate economic resources, but repatriation of white farms caused the flight of white capital in 2000, and by 2003, the land reform program had created chaos and violence. Inflation seriously threatened the gold mining and tobacco industries.
Zimbabwe has a substantial and diverse manufacturing base, which is partly a legacy of the international sanctions imposed over the five years prior to independence. Industry accounted for only 14% of GDP in 2000, however. Manufacturing was at its lowest level in 15 years in 2000 due to civil unrest. Food and beverages, minerals processing, chemical and petroleum products
, and textiles account for the majority of the value added by manufacturing. Lower levels of consumer demand because of high prices have affected producers of many household goods, clothing, footwear, drink, and tobacco products
The Zimbabwe Iron and Steel
Corporation (ZISCO) was operating at 30% in 1996, and supplied 60% of local need. The Zimchem chemical refinery processes a range of chemical products. Cement is produced in large quantities. Zimbabwe also has a substantial cotton and textile industry
. The textiles industry has lost some 17,000 jobs in recent years to foreign competition from South Africa, which used subsidies, export incentives, and tariff protection to support its textiles industry. The gold mining industry faced collapse and closure in 2000 because of a lack of foreign exchange. Gold output dropped by half in that year, and 46,000 jobs were in peril. The tobacco industry was also in danger of foreclosure due to farm repatriation. As of 2002, the dire condition of the economy (a severely problematic balance of payments situation, devaluation of the currency, desperate foreign currency shortage, high inflation, very high interest rates, a fall in exports, and fuel shortages) was damaging the operations and viability of the manufacturing, construction, and mining sectors, in addition to agriculture. In 2000, manufacturing contracted at least 10.5%.