industrial chemicals technology hand book

industrial chemicals technology hand book
Author: EIRI Books
ISBN: 8186732780
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INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS TECHNOLOGY HAND BOOK (HAND BOOK OF INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALSS)


ACETYLENE

Uses of Acetylene
Important Points

ACETALDEHYDE

ACETIC ACID

AMMONIUM   NITRATE

Properties
Raw Materials
Method of Production
Production Economics
Physical Condition
Important Points

AMMONIUM SULPHATE

Prperties
Manufacture (Byproduct)
Synthetic Manufacture
Ammonium Sulphate from Gypsum or Anhydrite
Action of as fertilizer

AMMONIUM PHOSPHATE

Mono Ammonium Phosphate
Diammnium Phosphate Other Phosphates

ALKYD RESINS AND PLASTICS

ALCOHOL BEVERAGES

Manufacture of Beer
Formation of Wort
Fermentation of Wort
Manufacture of Spirit
Manufacture of Wines
Manufacture of Vinegar
Manufacture of Power Alcohol
Ethyl Alcohol from Molasses
Preparation of Wash
Diatillation
Alcohol from Waste Suphite Liquor
Manufacture from Starchy Materials
Manufacture from Hydrocarbon Gases
Importance of Power Alcohol as Fuel

ALUM

Introduction
Raw Material Requirements
Reactions
Process of Manufacture
Uses
Miscellaneous
Properties
Grades
Containers
Plant & Machinery
Market Potential
Plant Economics
Analytical testing of Ammonium  Alum
Determination of Ammonium Alum Constent
General
EDTA Method
Reagents
Procedure
Calculation
Gravimetric Method
Laboratory Testing of Aluminium Sulphate
 Volumetric Determination of Combined Aluminium in Aluminium Sulphate
Introduction
Procedure

ANIONIC DETERGENTS

Soaps

ADHESIVES

Introduction
The Process of Bonding
Classification of Adhesives
Preparation of Adhesives
Animal Glue
Other Protein Adhesives
Starch Adhesives
Synthetic Resin Adhesives
Rubber Based Adhesives
Cellulose and Silicate Adhesives
Uses of Adhesives

ASCORBIC ACID OR VITAMIN C

Occurrence
Isolation
Absorption, Storage and Excretion
Disease Caused By Deficiency
Requirements
Structure

ALUMINA (ALUMINIUM OXIDE)

Properties
Preparation
Manufactureof Alumina
Electrolysis of Alumina

ALUMINIUM SULPHATE FROM BAUXITE

Process
Uses
Properties
Alums
Chrome Alum

ALUMINIUM CHLORIDE

From Aluminium Metal and Chlorine
Process
Reaction
Uses
Properties

BIO GAS OR GOBAR GAS

Details of the Plant used
Plant Operation
More Efficient Biogas Plants

BLEACHING POWDER

BARIUM AND ITS COMPOUNDS


Introduction Benefication of Barytes
Manufacture of Barium Compounds
Feed preparation for reduction furnace
Reduction process operation
Conversion
Barium Compounds
Barium Carbonate
Sources of carbon dioxide
Solid waste management
Barium Chloride
Manufacture  from black ash
Safety, quality and packing
Manufacture from Solid Waste Generated in BaCO3 Unit
By product recovery
Safety precautions
Properties of barium chloride
Barium Nitrate
Safety, quality packing
Uses
Barium Ferrite
Blanc Fixe or Precipitated Barium Sulphate
From fresh BaS solution and iron free good quality sodium sulphate (preferably from rayon process)
From BaS liquor and 70% sulphuric acid
from BaCl2 solution and sulphuric  acid(90-98%0
Barium Hydroxide
From barium chloride by reaction with caustic alkali
Barium Stearate
Barium Chromate

CAFFEINE

From Tea Waste
Raw Materials Requirements
Process
Properties
Purity
Reagents and Apparatus
Standardization
Procedure A: (Potentiometric)
Calculations
Procedure B: (Indicator)
Procedure C
Calculation
Economic Aspects

CERAMICS

Other Ingredients
Manufacturing Process
Grinding of Raw Material
Mixing or Preparation of Bodies
Body Preparation using Clay in Plastic State
Body Preparation using Dry Clay
Body Preparation using Clay Slip
Filtering
Kneading
Jollying
Slit Casting
Pressing
Extrusion
Turning
Drying
Types of Dryers
Firing
Glazing
Frits
Decoration
Applications of Colours to Pottery
Porcetain and China
Raw Materials
Manufacture
Earthenwares and Stonewares
Important Points

CEMENT

Cement Rock Benefication
Manufacture
Reactions in the Kiln Mixing of Additives to Cement
Important Points

CAUSTIC SODA

Common Salt
Method of Manufacture
Caustic Soda
Cells Used
Diaphragm Cells
Porous Diaphragm Cells-Nelson Cell
Hooker Cell
The dow Cell
Diamond Cell
Vorce Cells
Manufacture of Caustic Soda and Chlorine by using Diaphragm Cell
Physico Chemical Principles

CALCIUM CARBONATE

By Lime Carbonation Process
Reaction
Raw Material  Requirements
Process
Purity
Determination of Calcium Carbonate
Standard Disodium Ethylenediamino Tetra-Acetate (EDTA) Solution
Economic Aspects

CATIONIC DETERGENTS


CALCIUM CARBIDE

COPPER SULPHATE


From Copper and Sulphuric Acid
Process
Reaction
Properties
Uses

CITRIC ACID

From Molasses by Fermentation
Process
By Submerged Fermentation
Properties
Grades
Containers and Regulations
Purity
Citric Acid
Procedure
Economic Aspects

CARBON  BLACK

Manufacture

Carbon black manufactruing processes
Uses

DICALCIUM PHOSPHATE

Physical Properties
Grades
Containers and Regulations
Purity
Method
Reagents
Procedure
Calculation
Economic Aspect

ETHYL ALCOHOL

Introduction
Properties
Uses and Applications
Industrial Prospect
Manufacturing Process (From Molasses by Fermentation)
Reaction
Material Requirements and Utility
List of Plant and Machinery

ETHANOL OF INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL

Important  Points

FUELS

Criterion of Selection of Fuel
Properties of Fuels
Methods for Processing Various Fuels
Fossil Fuels
Solid Fuels
Natural Solid Fuels
Artificial Solid Fuels
Industrial Solid Fuels
Formation of Coal
Properties of Coal
Classification of Coal
Cooking and Non-Cooking Coals
Pulverised Coal
Classification of Coal
Cooking and Non-Cooking Coals
Pulverised Coal
Role of Sulphur and Ash in Coal
Advantages of Solid Fuels over Liquid and  Gaseous Fuels
Disadvantages of Solid Fuels over Liquid and Gaseous Fuels
Composition of Coal
Proximate Analysis
Calculations
Ultimate Analysis
Calculation
Calorific Vaue
Chemical Processing of Solid Fuels
The High and Low Temperature Carbonisation of Coal

HYDROGEN PEROXIDE

Uses


HYDROCHLORIC ACID

MAGNESIUM SULPHATE

From Magnesium Carbonate
Reaction
Raw Material Requirements
Process
Properties
Grades
Containers
Purity
Determination of Magnesium Sulphate
Reagents
Procedure
Calculation
Economic Aspects

NITRIC ACID

Methods of Manufacture
From Chite Saltpetre
Birkland and Eyde  Process Arc Process
Physico Chemical Principles
Effect of Temperature
Concentration of NO
Effect of Pressure
Effect of Concentration
Effect of Catalysis

OXALIC ACID

From Sodium Formate
Reaction
Material requirements
Process
From Carbohydrates
Reaction
Material  requirements
Process
Properties
Grades
Containers
Purity
Determination of Oxalic Acid Content
Reagents
Procedure
Calculation
Economic Aspects

PARAFFIN WAX

From Slack Wax
(Acid Treatment)
Raw Material Requirements
Process
Sweating Process
Solvent Process
Properties
Grades
Containers
Purity
Economic Aspects

PHOSPHORIC ACID

From Phosphate Rock by Electric Furnace Process
Reactions
Reaction
Process
Wet Process
Other phosphorus containing acids
Raw Material
Uses
Properties

PHENOL

PREPARATION OF MgO FROM DOLOMITE

Carbo Thermal Process
Silico Thermal of Pidgeon Process
Uses

POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE

Preparation
Preparation
In Acid Medium
In Neutral Medium
Uses

STEARIC ACID

From Fat by Twitchell process and Pressing
Reaction (Generalised)
Material and Utility Requirements (Typical)
Process
From Fat by Continuous High Pressure Splitting and Solvent Crystallization
Reaction
Material and Utility Requirements (Typical)
Process
From Fatty Oils by  Hydrogenation
Fractional  Distillation
Properties
Grades
Containers
Oleic Acid
Grades
Containers
Purity
Outline of the Method
Apparatus
Reagents
Procedure
Calculation
Determination of Iodine Value (Wijs)
Reagents
Procedure
Calculation
Economic Aspects

SULPHURIC ACID

History
Properties
Grades of Acids
Manufacture
Similarities between the Processes
Chamber Process
Theory
Chamber Process Equipment
Reactions
Movement of Gases
Purification of the Acid
Concentration of the Chamber Acid
Contact Process
Theory
Burners
Treatment of the Burner Gas
Purification of Unit
Contact Furnace Preheater and Converter
Sulphur Trioxide Absorbers
Oleum Manufacture
Physico Chemical Principles Involved in the Manufacture  of Sulphuric Acid by Chamber Process and
contact process
Sulfan

SULPHUR AND SULPHURIC ACID

Sulphur

Occurrence
Mining of Sulphur
Sicilian Process
Purification or Refining of Sulphur
Lousiana or Frasch Process
Recovery of Sulphur

SODA ASH

Leblance Process
Solvay's Ammonia Soda process
Technical Points
Important Points
Dual Process
Choice of Process

SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE

Uses

SODIUM CHLORATE

SODIUM CHROMATE

From Chromite Ore
Process
Reaction
Properties
Uses

SODIUM PHOSPHATES

Process
Reaction
Uses
Properties
Monosodium phosphate
Disodium phosphate
Trisodium phosphate
Tetrasodium pyrophosphate
Sodium acid pyrophosphate
Sodium metaphosphate
Sodium tripolyphosphate

SODIUM CHLORIDE (COMMON SALT)

Manufacture

Process
From saturated brine by open pan (Gralner) process
Process
From Rock Salt by Mining
From Sea Water by Solar Evaporation
Other Processes
Uses
Properties

SODIUM THIOSULPHATE (HYPO)

From Soda Ash and Sulphur Dioxide
Process
Reaction
From Sodium Sulphite and Sulphur
From By Product Sodium Sulphide
From By product of Sulphur Dye Manufacture
Uses
Properties

SODIUM SILICATE

From Sodium Carbonate and Silica (Sand)
Process
Reaction
Use
Properties
Sodium tetrasilicate
Sodium disilicate
Sodium metasilicate
Sodium metasilicate pentahydrate
Sodium metasilicate nonahydrate
Sodium sesquisilicate
Sodium orthosilicate

SODIUM BICARBONATE (BAKING SODA)

Manufacture
From sodium carbonate (soda ash)
Reaction
Process
Uses
Properties

SUPERPHOSPHATE

SOME SMALL SCALE UNITS

Safety Matches
Agarbattis
Napthalene Balls
Wax Candies
Shoe Polish
Other Precautions
Gum Paste
Writing/Fountain Pen Ink
Chalk Crayons
Plaster of Paris
Silicon Carbide Crucibles

TARTARIC ACID

Introduction
Raw Material Requirements
Reaction
Process
Properties
Grades
Containers
Uses of Tartaric Acid
Plant Economics
Analytical Testing
Determination of Tartaric Acid content
Reagents
Procedure
Calculation
Market Potential

TITANIUM DIOXIDE

Manufacture
Modern Chlorine Method
Physical Properties of TiO2 Pigment
Anatase Variety
Characteristics of the Pigment
Uses

TRI-SODIUM PHOSPHATE

Anatase Variety
Characteristics of the Pigment
Uses

TRI-SODIUM PHOSPHATE

Introduction
Properties
Uses
Scope
Manufacturing Process
Laboratory Testing
Determination of Phosphate Content
Reagents
Citro Molybdate Reagent
Procedure
Calculation

ULTRAMARINE BLUE

Uses

ZINC OXIDE

Manufacture
The French Process
The Electrothermic Process
Calamine Method
Physical Prperties of Zinc Oxide Pigment
Characteristics of the Pigment
Uses

PLANT ECONOMICS OF ACETYLENE GAS AND OXYGEN GAS (INTEGRATED UNIT)

PLANT ECONOMICS OF AMMONIUM NITRATE

PLANT ECONOMICS OF AMMONIUM SULPHATE

PLANT ECONOMICS OF ALKYD RESINS

PLANT ECONOMICS OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES AND VINEGAR FROM COCONUT WATER

PLANT ECONOMICS OF ADHESIVE (FEVICOL TYPE)

PLANT ECONOMICS OF ALUMINIUM CHLORIDE

PLANT ECONOMICS OF ALUMINA CERAMICS

PLANT ECONOMICS OF ACTIVATED CARBON FROM RICE HUSK

PLANT ECONOMICS OF BEER  INDUSTRY & ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES

PLANT ECONOMICS OF BLEACHING POWDER

PLANT ECONOMICS OF BARIUM COMPOUNDS

PLANT ECONOMICS OF CAFFEINE FROM TEA WASTE

PLANT ECONOMICS OF CERAMIC GLAZED TILES

PLANT ECONOMICS OF CAUSTIC SODA BY SODA LIME PROCESS

PLANT ECONOMICS OF CALCIUM CARBONATE (PRECIPITATED)

PLANT ECONOMICS OF DETERGENT (ANIONIC)

PLANT ECONOMICS OF DICALCIUM PHOSPHATE FROM ROCK PHOSPHATE

PLANT ECONOMICS OF ETHYL ALCOHOL FROM MOLASSES

PLANT ECONOMICS OF ETHANOL (BIOFUEL) FROM MOLASSES

PLANT ECONOMICS OF  FLAVOURED ALCOHOLIC DRINKS

PLANT ECONOMICS OF  FERRIC ALUM VARIOUS GRADES

PLANT ECONOMICS OF  GLACIAL ACETIC ACID

PLANT ECONOMICS OF  GLUE & ADHESIVE

PLANT ECONOMICS OF  LEATHER ADHESIVES

PLANT ECONOMICS OF  MINI CEMENT PLANT

PLANT ECONOMICS OF  NON FERRIC ALUM

PLANT ECONOMICS OF  REFRACTORIES WITH CERAMICS

PLANT ECONOMICS OF  STARCH & DEXTRIN BASED ADHESIVE

PLANT ECONOMICS OF  SULPHURIC ACID

PLANT ECONOMICS OF  SODA ASH (SODIUM CARBONATE)

PLANT ECONOMICS OF  SODIUM SILICATE BY SODA ASH & SILICA SAND

PLANT ECONOMICS OF  ZINC OXIDE

PLANT ECONOMICS OF  AND MACHINERIES

PLANT ECONOMICS OF  RAW  MATERIALS



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