Flour is produced from both plantains and eating bananas in many regions, which can then be used in soups, baking or as a drink. The banana can also be used to make vinegar and to brew alcoholic beverages. The stamina flowers can be used as a vegetable, after briefly heating them in salty water (to remove the bitterness). Bananas can also be used as a starch-rich animal feed (pig farming). The fresh leaves are high in protein content, and are preferred for their taste by cattle and chickens. The leaves are also commonly used as packing material and for roofing. Along with the pseudo-stem they offer excellent mulching material. The exclusive use of healthy seeds, and application of appropriate measures, offer the most effective preventative and thus alternative methods of controlling insects and nematodes. The application of waste from extensive shrimp farms in Ecuador (shrimp shells) has shown good results against nematodes beside being a good organic fertilizer.