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injection moulding of plastics (hand book)

injection moulding of  plastics (hand book)
Author: EIRI Books
ISBN: 9788189765200
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INJECTION MOULDING OF PLASTICS


INJECTION MOULDING

The Material Hopper
The Barrel/Cylinder heating system
The Barrel/Cylinder and Screw
Adhesion
Abrasion
Corrosion
Datamination
The Screw Drive System
The Stationery Platen
The Mould
The Moving Planten and Tie Rods
The Clamping Unit
To Close and open the mould
To eject the parts
To keep the mould closed during the injection cycle
Check these item for  trouble moulds
General check list for new moulds
Machine
Mould Design
General
Mould Analysis Software
Co-ordinate Measuring Machines
Benefit to Processors
Granulator Check List
Metal Separators
Geneal Performance Data

SETTING UP MOULD AND MACHINE

Moulding Set up Time
Check list for Start up
Processing  Some Initial Consideration
Number of Shots/Cycle Time
Plasticizing Capacity/Rate
Clamp Tonnage
Mouldability Features
Part Removal
The Sprue
Runner System
Cold Slug Well
Gate Location
Gate Size
Cores
Vents
Undercuts
Melt Rheology
Purging
Set Clamp Cycle
Clamp Data
Pressure, Feed, Speeds
Timers in Sec.
Temp, Cylinder, Nozzle & Nozzle Valve
First Shot
Mould Mounting Data
Mould Placement
Removal
Water Data
Temp Cavity Position
Temp. Core Position
Mics. Columns as needed
Estimating Cooling time during injection moulding
Setting up a Moulding shop
Accessories for the injection unit
Hygroscopic Plastics
Operations and Controls in Injection Moulding

EFFECT OF PROCESSING ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Orientation
Residual Stresses
Melt  Elasticity
Melt Fracture
Weld Lines
Accurate Dimensions
Cooling Rate
Weigh Feeding and Blending
Feeders
Weigh Blenders
Controls
Processes Control Method in Injection Moulding
Factors that Affect Reproductive  Behaviour of Injection Moulding Machne
In Line Injection Compression Equipment

MOULD FLOW

What is Mouldflow
How Mouldflow can help Part Designers, Mould Maker & Processor
How mouldflow can help Mould Designer
How Mouldflow can help a Processor
How to improve Quality & Productivity using Mouldflow
Hydraulic System Noise Suppression
The main causes of noise are
Some suggestions for Noise Reduction
Injection Moulding Section
Estimating Cooling Time
How Cooling Affects the Cycle Time
How Wall thickness impacts
Cooling Time
Cooling Channel Diameter and Placement
How Turbulent is Enough
Energy Consumption in Injection Moulding
Injection Moulding Control System
Mechanical Properties
Dimensional Accuracy
Surface Quality
Basic Methods for control are
Temperature Controls
Pressure Measurement
Disturbing Factor that affect smooth operation are
Clamping
Injection
Micro Process Controls in Moulding
Standard Functions
Monitoring Functions
Control Functions
Note

COMPUTER  CONTROLLED AUTOMATIC  INJECTION MOULDING MACHINE

Clamping Side
Injection Side
Machine Maintenance
Make Sure the Oil is Clean
Examine Control  Cabinet Fitters
Check Water Quality
Pay Attention to Toggle Link Lubrication
Monitor Machine levelling
Beware to How you square
Inspect Heater Bands
Watch safeties
Stop Look, Listen
Mould Placement
Purging
Mould Removal from
Press Moulding Machine
Mould Steels
Plastic Mould Steels requirements
New Mould Materials (Alloys and Powder Metals)
Two component Injection Moulding (Sandwich Moulding)
Back Pressure
Injection Technique

MAINTENANCE OF INJECTION MOULDING MACHINE

Daily Maintenance
Daily Maintenance
Monthly maintenance
Inspection at Three month intervals
Inspection at six month intervals
Annual inspection
Daily Maintenance Attention
Piping installation
Controls of Hydraulic and Lubricating Oils
Trouble Shooting of Hydraulic Circuit
Problems and Possible causes
Noisy Pumps
Low or erractic pressure
No Pressure
Actuator fails to move
Slow to erratic operating
Erratic Feed Rates
Overheating of System
Excessive slippage or internal leakage
Machine Maintenance in General
Pressure gauges and pyrometers
Hydraulic Oil
Fitters
Coolers (heat exchangers)
Oil leaks
Troubleshooting of a hydraulic circuit
Brief mould Design Check List
Press
Moulding
Tool
A checklist Mould Visa-Vis Machine
Check these items for trouble free moulds
Mould making using  computer integrated manufacturing (CIM)
CAD for Part Designing
Maintenance and Care of Moulds
Serving
Repairs Most Common

CAE AND CAD TECHNOLOGY IN MOULDS MAKING

What is CAE
Flow Analysis
Cooling Analysis
Structural Analysis
Usage of CAE
User Specified Values
Is it not an expensive showpiece ?
Computer Aided Design and Computer Aided Manufacturing
2D System
3D Interactive graphics system
Solid Modellers
CAM Computer Aided Manufacturing
How Does the Mould design software Expedite the work
How does CAM Software Work
Assembly and Testing of Mould


INJECTION  MOULDING  PROCESS

Machine  Ratings
Influence of Mateial Properties on the Moulding
Nozzle
Runners and Gates
Mould
Product Design for Injection Moulding
Coloured Moulding
Moulding Problems
Finishing and Regrinding
Purging
Process Control
Computer Integrated Injection Moulding
Microprocessor Control Systems
Computerised process Simulation of 1M

SPECIALISED INJECTION MOULDING PROCESS

Co-Injection Moulding
Two Colour Moulding
Gas Injection Moulding (GIM)
Advantages and Disadvantages
Basic Processes and Procedures
Disadvantages
Processes
Procedures
Moulding Aspects
Shrinkage
Multi Live Moulding
Counterflow Moulding
Oscillatory Moulding for Optical Disks
Reaction Injection Moulding
Mould
Process Controls
Liquid Injection Moulding
Structural Foam Moulding (SFM)
Performance
Plastic Materials
Characteristics of foam
Design Analysis
Blowing Agents
Methods of Processing  structural Foam (SF) with  Chemical Blowing Agents (CBA)
Low pressure foam
High pressure foam
Processing  SF with Gas  blowing Agent
Tooling
Startup for Moulding
Tandom Processing  Systems
Tandem Moulding  Machines
Operational sequence
Coining
Injection Blow Moulding (IBM)
Injection Moulding with Rotation
DIP Injection Blow Moulding
Materials
Metal Injection Moulding (MIM)
Ceramic Injection Moulding
Fusible and Soluble
Core Moulding
Vacuum Moulding


TROUBLESHOOTING IN INJECTION MOULDING

Problem of Short Shots
Problem of Flashing
Problems of Bubbles and Voids
Problem of Brittleness of Component
Problem  of Discoloration
Problem of silver streaks
Problem of Nozzle Drooling and Foaming
Problem of Scorching
Problem of Sprue Sticking
Problem of Surface Lamination
Problem of Parts Sticking of the Muld
Problem of Surface Waviness (Pits, Orange peel, Wrinkles)
Problem of Warping
Problem of Weld Lines
Problem of Dimensional  Variation
Problem of Jetting
Problem of Gate Smear
Technological Solutions for Total Quality in Injection Moulding of Plastics
Machine
Mould
Material
Man
Quality Related Problems
Problems of Moulding
Perfect Mouldability

INJECTION MOULDING OF THERMOSETS

Introduction
Process Operations
Process and Design Considerations
Materials
Process Effects on Design
Injection compression Moulding
Part Design Consideration
Cold Runner Moulding
Injection Moulding Reinforced Polyesters
Injection Moulding Presses
Temperature Control

INJECTION MOULDING  MACHINE

Co-Injection Moulding
Process
Equipment
Reaction Injection
Moulding (RIM) Low Pressures
Low Temperature
Liquid Intermediates
Equipments
Material Conditioning System
Matering System
Mixing head
Mould Carrier
Tooling

DESIGN FOR INJECTION MOULDS

Introduction
Mould Design Features
Two Plate Mould
Three plate Mould
Hot Runner Moulds
Insulated Runner Moulds
Runners
Gates
Venting
Parting Line
Ejection
Ejector Mechanisms
Ejector Sleeve
Stripper Ring
Stripper Plates
Vent Pins
Cam Actions
Early Ejector Hetum Unit
Mould Cooling
Standard Equipment
Standard Mould Bases
Standard Cavity Inserts

DESIGNING MOULDS  FOR THERMOSET PROCESSING

Introduction
Method of Moulding
Transfer Moulds
Injection Moulding of Thermosets
Injection Compression Moulding of Thermosets
Runner and Gate Design
Vents
General Mould Design
Considerations

INJECTION MOULDED PLASTIC COMPONENTS

Introduction
Manufacturing Process
Plasticizing
Process Flow Sheet
Plant Economics of Injection Moulded Plastic Components
Rated Plant Capacity
Land and building
Plant and Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total working capital/month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/Annum
profit Sales Ratio
Rate of Return
Break Even Point

PLASTIC MOULDED TOYS

Introduction
Process of Manufacture
Injection Moulding Process in Detail
Plasticizing
Injection
After filling
Process flow sheet
Plant Economics of Plastic Mould Toys
Rated Plant Capacity
Land and building
Plant and Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total working capital/month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/Annum
profit Sales Ratio
Rate of Return
Break Even Point


PLASTIC INJECTION MOULDING PRODUCTS

Process of Manufactures
Plant Economics of Plastic Injection Moulding
Rated Plant Capacity
Land and building
Plant and Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total working capital/month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/Annum
profit Sales Ratio
Rate of Return
Break Even Point


PLASTIC INJECTION MOULDING ITEMS (LIKE BUCKET, PLASTIC CHAIRS, BATHING TUB)

Manufacturing Process
Plasticizing
process Flow Sheet
Plant  Economics of Plastic Injection Moulding
Rated Plant Capacity
Land and building
Plant and Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total working capital/month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/Annum
profit Sales Ratio
Rate of Return
Break Even Point


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