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manufacture of household soaps, toilet soaps and other soaps with formulations

manufacture of household soaps, toilet soaps and other soaps with formulations
Author: EIRI Books
ISBN: 9788186732533
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MANUFACTURE OF HOUSEHOLD SOAPS , TOILET SOAPS AND OTHER SOAPS WITH FORMULATIONS


SOAP BASE MANUFACTURE

Introduction
Some Principles
Phase Diagram
Saponification
The 66% Rule of Wigner  and Related Matters
Production of Soap Base  By The Traditional Method in Single  Vessels
Plant
Saponification
Graining or Washing
Fitting
Wigner System of Quantitative Soapboiling
Developments of  the  Traditional Process
An Additional Principle
The Components Used in Modern Soapmaking  Process
Equipment for Saponification
Equipment for Washing
Equipment for Fitting and Final Separation
Complete Soapmaking Plants
Plant Performance
Preliminary Tratment of Spent
Lyes in the Soapmaking

SOLID, HOUSEHOLD AND TOILET SOAPS MANUFACTURE

Introduction
The Older Processes for Household Soaps
Some Principles Related  To the Production of Extruded Soap
General
Solidification and Drying
Extrusion, Homogenisation and Plastic Working
Properties of Solid Soaps
Ingredients Added to Household and Toilet Soaps
General
Preservatives
Perfumes
Colours, Opacifiers and Optical Brighteners
Germicides and Other Medicinal Ingredients
Superfatting Agents
Scum Dispersants, Leading to NSD Tablets and Bars
Miscellaneous Ingredients
Efflorescence
Modern Processes for The Production of Household Soaps
Equipment for Toilet Soap Production
Transparent and Translucent Soaps
Floating Soaps
Filled, or Run, Soaps
Glued up Soaps
Laundry Soap
Improvements in Laundry Soap
Some Principles of Soap Formulation
Use of Minor Oils/Fats
Mowrah (Mahua)
Kokum
Dhupa
Pisa
Mango Kernel
Sal
Dharambe
Composition and Properties
Manufacture
Health and Safety, Factors
Drycleaning And Laundering
Dryeleaning
The Drycleaning Operation
Materials
Water Control
Solvent Purification, Distillation
Carbon Recovery
Laundering
Commercial Laundering
Materials
Chemicals

RAW MATERIALS FOR SOAP INDUSTRY

Introduction
Raw Materials
Surfactants, Builders and Fillers
Types of Soaps and Soapmaking Terms
Acids, Alkalis, Buffers, pH and Indicators
Classes of Salts
Salts of a strong acid and a strong base
Salts  of a weak acid  and a strong base
Salts of a strong acid and a weak base
Salts  of a weak acid and a weak base
Inorganic Materials  Important in The Detergents Industry
Common Salt, or Sodium Chloride (NaCl)
Caustic Soda or Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH)
Caustic potash or Potassium Hydroxide (KOH)
Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3)
Sodium Bicarbonate (NaHCO2)
Sodium Sesquicarbonate
(Na2CO3, NaHCO32H2O)
The Sodium Silicates
Potassium Silicates
Borax
Sodium Phosphates
Potassium Phosphates
Bleaches, Inorganic And Organic
General
Sodium and other Hypochlorites
Sodium Chloride, NaClO2
Hydrogen Peroxide and the per salts
Analysis of Soap Products
General
Chlorides (Salt)
Silica, SiO2
Available Oxygen
Household Soap
Soap Powder
Water Hardness and Water Softening
Water Hardness
Methods of Softening Water

OILS, FATS AND THEIR PRETREATMENT

Introduction
The Fatty Acids
The Fatty Acid Compositions of Oils and Fats
Other Differences Between Various Fats
Some Analytical Characteristics of Oils and Fats
General
Moisture and Dirt
Titre
FFA (free faty acid) Content, Acid Value, Saponification Value, and Ester Value
Content of Unsaponifiable Matter
Iodine Value
Reichert Meissl, Polenske and  Kirschner Values
Specific Gravity or Relative Density
Rosin Content and Tests for Specific Oils
Specifications Qualities of Tallows and Greases
The Pre-Treatment of Oils  and Fats, and The Production of  By-Products Used in Soaps
General
Types of Pre treatment
Soapstocks and Acid Oils, or Acidulated Soapstocks
Bleaching of Oils and Fats
Selection of Fat Blends for Various Soaps
Fatty Acid and Glycerol Contents of Fats, and Related  Matters, Glycerine Credit
Handling and Storage of Oils And Fats, Deterioration of Fatty Materials

MANUFACTURE, PURIFICATION OF FATTY ACIDS AND PRODUCTION OF SOAP BASE

Introducton
Fat Splitting
Principles of Fat splitting
Splitting Plant and Processes
General
Distillation Principles
Distillation Equipment
Vapourisers
Fractionators, condensers and strippers
Separation of Solid and Liquid Fatty Acids
Production of Soap Base  from Fatty Acids
Comparison Between Soap Manufacture By Direct  Saponification and by The Fatty Acid Route

RECOVERY AND REFINING OF GLYCERINE

Introduction
Some Analytical Tests And Specifications
Glycerol Content
Non volatile Inorganic and Organic Residues, Particularly in Crude Glycerines
Nitrogen
Arsenic
Sodium Chlorate
Silver Tests for Reducing Substances in Refined Glycerines
Fatty Acids and Esters in Refined Glycerines
Chlorides in Refined Glycerines
Other Tests
Purification of Soap Lyes and Sweet Waters
Thermal Efficiency
Types of Heating Unit
Removal and Recovery of Salt in the Evaporation of Soap Lyes
Minimisation of Losses of Glycerol
Vacuum Maintenance
Evaporator Control
Materials of construction for Glycerine Treatment and Evaporation Plants
Complete Evaporation Plants
Treatment of Crude Glycerine  To Remove Low Molecular Mass Fatty Acids
Distillation of Glycerine
General
Chemical Aspects of Glycerine Distillation
Vapourisation Principles
Vapourisation Equipment
Spray Arresters
Condensation, Condensers, Stripping  Columns, Concentrators, and Deodorisers
Materials of Construction for Glycerine Stills
Complete  Stills
Bleaching and the Treatment of Distillates with ION Exchange  Resins to Upgrade Quality
Production of Refined  Grades  of Glycerine  without Distillation
Ion Exclusion
Ion Exchange
Reverse Osmosis Using  Semi permeable Membrances

PERFUMING OF SOAPS AND DETERGENTS

Introduction
Types  of Perfumes
Matching a Perfume
Formulation of Perfumes in Soap Compounds
Antiseptic and Medicated Soaps
Perfuming Boxes

TESTING OF SOAPS AND DETERGENTS

Introduction
Test Methods
Statistical Presentation of Data
Radioactive Tracer Technic
Water Hardness
Screening Tests
Acid Stability
Acid stability test method
Alkali Stability and Solubility in Caustic Soda  Solutions
Test method alkali stability
Test method solubility
Stability  toward Metallic Ions
Test method
Surface and Interfacial Testion Values and Spreading Coefficient
Surface Tension
Interfacial  Tension
Surface Active Agents
Test Method
Precautions
Lime Soap Dispersion
Test Method
Practical Wetting Tests
Test method Draves Clarkson test
Wetting Test
Canvas Disk Test Method
Rewetting  Test
Test Method
ewetting time
Lather Values
Test Method Ross Miles Pour Foam Test
Solubility Organic Solvents
Test Method
Cotton Washing
Water Hardness
Machines
Standard Cotton Soil  Fabric  Preparation
Fabric choice
Desizing
Soiling Machine
Soil Storage
Evaluation of Washed Swatches
Standardisation of Solid  Fabric  Testing
Cotton Wash Test Methods
Deter Meter Test Method
Conventional Washer Method
Practical Wash Tests
Home Laundering
Sea Water Detergency Tests
Detergency Methods
Redeposition
General Methods
Redeposition Test Procedue
Wool Washing
Raw Wool Scouring
Continuous Scouring of Raw Grease Wool
In Process Scouring
Finished Fabric Scouring
Wash Test Method
Washing Procedures for Other Fibres
Dry Cleaning
Shampoos
Detergency Method
Lather Shampoo
Hard Surface Cleaning
Metal Cleaning
Performance Tests
Diphase Cleaning
Surfaces
Soils
Machine for Removal
Sample
Estimation of Soil Removal
Dishwashing
Soil
Measurement of Soil Retention (or Removal)
Machines for Washing
Miscellaneous Tests
Brightening Agents
Evaluation
pH Determination
Proposed Method of Test for pH of Aqueous Solutions of Soaps and Detergents
Corrosion

MANUFACTURING PROCESS AND FORMULATIONS OF VARIOUS SOAPS

Washing  Soaps
Process
Washing Soap with Soda Silicate (by Cold  Process)
Process
Washing  Soap
Process
Sunlight  Type Washing Soap
Process
Sunlight  Type Washing  Soap (Other  Formula)
Process
Washing Soap made of Groundnut Oil Residue
Process
Washing Soap (from Linseed Oil)
Process
Washing Soap (Made of Cottonseed Oil)
Process
Nerol Soap
Process of Manufacturing
Other Selected Formulas of  Washing  Soaps
Process
Nerol Washing Soap
Process of Manufacturing
Toilet Soaps
Toilet Soap Composition
Selected Formulas for Toilet Soaps
Carbolic Soaps
Process
Lifeboy Type Soap
Process
Transparent Soap (Pears Type)
Process
Transparent  Soap (Another Formula)
Process
Shaving Soaps
Process
Process
Special Soaps
Borax Soap (for Pimples)
Process
Borax Soft Soap
Process
Soft Soap (Other Formula)
Process
Rug Cleaning Soaps
Process
Dry-Cleaning  Soap (Liquid)
Process
Soap used in the Bleaching of Jute
Process
Built Soaps for Cottons and Linens
Process
Sandle Soap
Process
Vaseline Soap
Process
Liquid Soap
Process
Girt Soaps
Process
Hand Soap Paste with Mineral Abrasive
Process
Powdered Hand Soap with Vegetable Abrasive and  Lanolin
Process
Depilatory Soaps
Process
Process
Metallic Soaps in Protective Coating Industry
Metals
Method of Precipitation
Liquid Dental Soap
Medicated Soap

MISCELLANEOUS FORMULAE

Peroxide Gel Dentifrice
High Lather Cream
Antidandruff Shampoo
Crystal Clear, Acid
Sarcosinate Shampoo
Clear Facial Cleanising Gel
Mild Shower Gel
Liquid Bath Foam
Liquid Toilet Soap
Cationic Skin Cleanser
Surgical Scrub Liquid
Facial Cleanser for Oily Skin
Acne Lather Scrub Gel
Emollient Gel
sunscreen Lotion
Aerosol Shave Cream
Aerosol Depilatory Spray
Deodorant Stick
Analgesic Cream
Surfactant Base Shower Gel Formulation
Procedure
Mixed Base Shoer Gel Formulation
Soap Base Shower Gel Formulation
Suractant Base Shower Gel Formulation
Daily Protection Facial Lotion (SPF 25)
Dental Cream
Mouthwash
Dental Cream
Mouth Rinse
Commercial Baby Shampoo
Instant Polish
Amide free Liquid Dishwash
Aloe Vera SPF 10 Sun Protection Gel
Gentle Baby Shampoo
Vitamin Skin Lotion
Kids Foaming Conditioning Shampoo
Gel Sanitizing Vertical Surface Cleaner

SCOURING BAR

Process of Manufacture of Scouring Bar/Dish Washing Bar
Plant Economics
Plant & Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investments
Turn Over/Annum

DETERGENT CAKE & POWDER

Detergent Cake Formula and its Manufacture
 Plant Economics
Plant & Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investments
Turn Over/Annum

TOILET & HERBAL SOAP

Formulation for Toilet Soaps By Cold Process
Process
Process Descriptions
Manufacturing Section
Driving
Finishing Section
Process of Herbal Soap Making
Raw Materials
Plant Economics
Plant & Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investments
Turn Over/Annum

LAUNDRY SOAP

Manufacturing  Process of Laundary Soap From Soap Flakes
Plant Economics
Plant & Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investments
Turn Over/Annum

LIQUID SOAP

Liquid Hand Soap Formulation
Plant Economics
Plant & Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investments
Turn Over/Annum

 NEROL LAUNDRY SOAP

Manufacturing Process of Best  Quality Nerol Soap
Plant Economics
Plant & Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investments
Turn Over/Annum

LIQUID SHOE POLISH PUFF

Process of Manufacture
 Plant Economics
Plant & Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investments
Turn Over/Annum

SOAP STONE POWDER FROM RAW SOAP STONE

Process of Manufacture
Purification of Tale
Weathering
Removal of Foreign Materials
Cleaning
Crushing
Crushing and Grinding
Packaging
Plant Economics
Plant & Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investments
Turn Over/Annum

COMPLETE PLANT SUPPLIERS


SUPPLIERS OF FRAGRANCES, FLAVOURS, PERFUMES FOR SOAPS

SUPPLIERS OF SOAPS MANUFACTURING CHEMICALS

PRESENT MANUFACTURERS

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