modern technology of acid slurry, surfactants, soap and detergents with formulae

modern technology of acid slurry, surfactants, soap and detergents with formulae
Author: EIRI Books
ISBN: 9789380772035
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The book Modern Technology of Modern Technology of Acid Slurry, Surfactants, Soap and Detergents with Formulae covers

Contents

Soap, Fatty Acids and
Synthetic Detergents


Soap
Introduction
Chemistry
Manufacturing Technology
Raw Materials
Functional Properties of Soap
Manufacturing Processes
Two-Stage Soap Spray Dryer
Fatty Acids
Fractionation and Physical
Separation
Fat Refining
Fat Splitting Processes
Fatty Acid Distillation
Special Separation Methods
Synthetic Detergents
Surfactant Hydrophile-
Hydrophobe Balance
Anionic Surfactants
Non-ionic Surfactants
Amphoteric Surfactants
Alkylolamides
Cationic Surfactants
Detergent Builders
Detergent Additives
Spray Drying
Agglomeration Processing
Liquid Detergent Processing
Detergent Trends

Detergent Components

Surfactants

Builders


Phosphates
Silicates
Zeolites
Soda ash
Oxygen releasing compounds
Sodium chloride
Sodium carboxy methyl cellulose68
Chelating agents

Raw Materials

Soap
Group A. Historical oil-bearing materials
Group B. Newer oil-bearing materials
Group C. Oil-bearing materials
derived as byproducts of
cultivated crops
Detergents

Analysis and Testing

Test for Moisture
Test for Free Fatty Acids
Test for Impurities
Test for Unsaponifiable Matter
Test for Titer
Tests for Colour
Iodine Number (Wijs Method)
Preparation of reagents
Wijs iodine solution
N/10 sodium thiosulphate
Starch paste
Potassium iodide solution
Potassium dichromate solution
Saponification Number
Melting Point Of Fats
Acid Number
Acetyl Value
Cold Test
Smoke, Flash, Fire Tests
Thiocyanogen Value
Volatile Fatty Acids
Bleach Test On Animal Fats
Specific Gravity Of Oils
Test For Marine Animal Oils In Vegetable Oil
Halphen Test For Cottonseed Oil
Baudoin’s Test For Sesame Oil
Bellier’s Test For Groundnut Oil
Fitelson Test For Teaseed Oil
Kreis Test For Rancidity
Test For Hardness In Water
Analysis Of Soap And Soap Products
Sampling And Preparation Of Sample
Test For Moisture
Test For Free Caustic Alkali
Test For Carbonate
Tests For Sodium Silicate
Tests For Borax
Test For Total Alkali And Total Fat
Test For Sodium Chloride
Test For Unsaponifiable And/or Unsaponified Fat
Test For Stability Of Soap
Examination Of Fatty Acids
Qualitative Test For Rosin
Quantitative Tests For Rosin
Analysis Of Potash Soap
Calculation Of Soap Analysis
Analysis Of Soap Powders
Quantitative determination
1. Reagents
2. Procedure
3. Calculation
Total phosphate
2. Reagents
3. Procedure
Synthetic Detergents
Presence of synthetic detergent
Qualitative test
1. Reagents
2. Procedure
Anhydrous, salt-free,
soda soaps
1. Apparatus
2. Reagents
3. Procedure
4. Calculation
1. Determination by difference
Tests For Biodegradability
Moisture Tests On Some
Popular Liquid Detergents
Analysis Of Glycerol

Manufacture of Acid Slurry

Sulphonation with sulphuric acid and oleum


Manufacture of Soap


Technology of Surfactants
Introduction
Types of Surfactants
Anionic Surfactants
Cationic Surfactants
Amphoteric Surfactants
Polymeric Surfactants
Biosurfactants
Raw Materials Of Surfactants
Linear Alkyl Benzene (LAB)
LAB Manufacturing Processes
Detergent Alcohols
Natural alcohols
Synthetic detergent alcohols
Alphaolefins (LAO)
Alphaolefins production
Ethylene Oxide (EO)/
Propylene Oxide (PO)
Manufacture
Fatty Amines
Key Features Of Surfactants
Major Surfactants
Lignin sulphonates
Petroleum sulphonates
Alkylbenzene sulphonates
Alkylnaphthalene sulphonates
Alcohol sulphates
Alcohol and alkylphenol ether sulphates (AES/APES)
Sorbitan esters
Glycerol esters
Polyglycerol esters
Glycols and glycol esters
Ethylene Oxide/Propylene Oxide Clock Copolymers
Alcohol Ethoxylates (AE)
Alkyl Phenol Ethoxylates (APE)
Polyhydric alcohol ethoxylates
Lanolin Ethoxylates
Ethoxylated Polysiloxanes
Alkanolamides
Fatty Amine Oxides (FAO)
Acetylenic Alcohol Derivatives
Silicones
Fluorosurfactants
Alkyl Polyglycosides
Sulphosuccinates, Sulphosuccinamates
Phosphate Esters
Amine Based Surfactants
Amine ethoxylates
Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (QAC)
Imidazolines and Polyamines
Betaines
Technologies For Manufacture Of Surfactants
Important Physico-chemical Characteristics of Surfactants
The HLB system
Surfactant solubility and the kraft temperature
Emulsion stabilisation
Foam stabilisation
Wetting and related phenomena
Dispersion
Technologies

Manufacture of Synthetic Detergents

Simple Absorption Combined Absorption of Neutralisation
White Households Heavy-day Washing Powder
Dry Mixing of Powders
Spray Drying of Powders
Liquid Detergents
Toilet Preparations
1. Cream Shampoo
2. Liquid Shampoo
3. Liquid Shampoo
4. Pearlescent Shampoo
5. Bubble Bath Preparation
Paste Detergents
(a) Detergent toilet cakes
Household Detergent Cakes
‘One-shot’ Tablets for Washing Machines
Spray-dried heavy duty household hand-washing powder
Heavy duty fully automatic washing machine powder
Low-foaming machine powder for soft water areas
Low-foaming machine powder for soft water areas using readymade soap powder
Spray dried household low-foaming laundry powders

Detergent Soap and Additives

Alkyl Aryl Sulphonate
Properties
Manufacturing Process
From Dodecyl Benzene and Sulphuric Acid
Reaction
Flow Diagram
Note
Useful Data
Uses
Grades
Toxicity
Detergent
Typical Properties of Linear
Alkyl Benzene, produced by the Pacol Process
Manufacturing Process
By Sulphonating Linear Alkybenzene
Suds Regulators
Builders
Additives
Note
Reaction
Linear alkylbenzene sulphonation
Flow Diagram

Plant Economics of Liquid Soap

Plant Economics of Nerol Laundry Soap


Plant Economics of Washing and
Laundry Soap

Plant Economics of
Toilet Soap From Soap Noodles


Plant Economics of Bar Soap

Plant Economics of Washing Soap

Plant Economics of
Detergent Cake & Powder


Plant Economics of
Detergent Powder


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