Modern Technology of biodegradable Plastics and Polymers with Bio-Plastics, Starch Plastic, Cellulose Polymers and Others

Modern Technology of biodegradable Plastics and Polymers with Bio-Plastics, Starch Plastic, Cellulose Polymers and Others
Author: Dr. Himadri Panda
ISBN: 9789380772608
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The book Modern Technology of biodegradable Plastics and Polymers with Bio-Plastics, Starch Plastic, Cellulose Polymers and Others covers Polymer Biodegradation, Biodegradation of Plastics, Biodegradable Polymers and Their Practical Utility, Practical Applications of Biodegradable Polymers,  Starch Based Packaging Materials, Bio plastics as Green and Sustainable Alternative to Plastics, Disadvantages of Bio plastics Starch Plastics,  Starch based Completely Biodegradable Polymers, Applications of Starch based Biodegradable Polymers in Food Industry,  Synthesis of Bio degradable Plastic from Corn Starch, Biodegradation Nature of Thermoplastic Starch,  Biodegradation of Thermoplastic Starch based Material,  Biodegradable Moldable products and films comprising Blends of Starch Esters and Polyesters, Cellulosic Polymers ,  Production of Cellulose Plastics (including Fibres) Cellulose based Polymers with Excellent Meltprocessibility, Biodegradation of Lignin, Biodegradable Polymeric Films (Novel Lignin Starch and Ligning Gelatin), Lignin Graft Copolymer,  Biodegradable Plastics and Composites from Wood, Process Design and Evaluation of Biobased Polyhydroxy alkanoates (PHA) Production, Transgenic Plants Producing Polyhydroxy alkanoates.

POLYMER BIODEGRADATION

  • Biodegrdation
  • Aerobic biodegradation
  • Schema of polymer degradation under aerobic and anaerobic conditions
  • Anaerobic biodegradation
  • Xenobiotics Biodegradation
  • Biodegradation of Aronaatic Compounds
  • Aerobic benzen biodegradation
  • Aerobic naphthalene biodegradation
  • Aerobic toluene biodegradation side group attack

BIODEGRADATION OF PLASTICS

  • PVA Biodegradation
  • Degradation mechanism of polyvinyl alcohol
  • Polyesters
  • Poly(e-Caprolactone)
  • Poly(L-Lactide)
  • Aliphatic Polyalkylene Dicarboxylic Acids 
  • Polyethylene (PE)
  • Nylon
  • Biodegradation of Polymer Blends
  • Starch/Polyethylene Blends
  • Starch/Polyester Blends
  • Starch/PVA Blends
  • Biodegradable Polymers
  • Mixtures of Synthetic Polymers and Substances that are Easy Digestible by Microorganisms
  • Chemically Modified Starch
  • Starch Polymer Composites
  • Thermoplastic Starch
  • Biodegradable Packing Materials
  • The Synthetic Materials with Groups Susceptible to Hydrolytic Micrbial Attack
  • Polycaprolactone
  • The Biopolyesters
  • Polyhydroxyalkanoates
  • Poly-B-Hydroxyalkanoates
  • Aliphatic Polyester Blends
  • Poly(Hydroxyalkanoate)
  • Blends of Poly(d.i) Lactide Family
  • Conclusion

BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS AND THEIR PRACTICAL UTILITY

  • Polymers directly extracted/removed from natural materials (mainly plants)
  • Polymers produced by classical chemical synthesis from renewable bio-derived monomers
  • Polymers produced by microorganisms or genetically transformed bacteria
  • Natural Polymers
  • Amylose structure
  • Structure of amylpectin
  • Structure of bacterial polyester
  • Polymers with Hydrolyzable Backbones
  • Polyglycolic acid 
  • Polycaprolactone (PCL)
  • Polyamies
  • Natural protein
  • Structure of polyglycolic acid (PGA)
  • Polyurethanes
  • Polymers with Carbon Backbones

PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS

  • Medical Applications
  • Surgical Sutures
  • Dexon
  • Polygalactin 910
  • Mexon
  • Monocryl
  • Polydioxanone (PDS)
  • Bone Fixation Devices
  • Vascular Grafts
  • Adhesion Prevention
  • Artificial Skin
  • Drug Delivery Systems
  • Agricultural Applications
  • Agricultural Mulches
  • Controlled Release of Agricultural Chemicals
  • Packaging

STARCH BASED  PACKAGING MATERIALS

  • Ingeo TM compostable bottles
  • PLA Based Packaging Materials
  • BioWare products
  • NatureFlex film for vegetable wrapping
  • Cellulose Based Packaging Materials
  • Pullulan Based Packaging Mateials
  • Other Bio-Packaging Solutions
  • Partially Biodegradable Packaging Materials
  • Profile Extrusion

BIO-PLASTICS AS GREEN AND SUSTAINABLE ALTERNATIVE TO PLASTICS

  • Why Bioplastics
  • Composition
  • Classification
  • Poly-iactic Acid
  • Synthesis of PLA
  • The flow chart of PLA
  • Poly iactic acid (PLA) for Plastic Production
  • Physical and Chemical Properties
  • Some of the properties of PLA
  • Unique Characteristics 
  • Some of the unique characteristics of PLA
  • Special Case of Bioplastics
  • Water Hyacinth
  • Production of  PHB
  • Water hyacinth
  • Advantages
  • Bio-Degradation of Bio-Plastic 
  • Applications/Uses of Bioplastics
  • Advantages of Bio-plastics
  • Petro plastic Bottle (70% petro/30% plantbased (sugarcane) PET bottle
  • Bio plastic Bottle-100% plant based (food waste)

DISADVANTAGES OF BIOPLASTICS

  • Viability of Bio plastics 
  • Land required for renewable resources
  • Renewable resources for food, feed and bioplastics
  • Carbon Cycle of Bioplastics
  • Bioplastic cycle
  • End of life
  • Cycle Time
  • Bio-plastics vs oil based plastics
  • Market and Price of Bioplastics
  • Typical Bio plastic cycle
  • Conclusions and Discussions

STARCH PLASTICS

  • A section of the amylose molecule showing the repeating anhydroglucose unit 
  • A section of the amylopectin molecule showing the two different types of chain Linkages 
  • Starch polymers for nonplastic applications
  • Overview of starch use for food and non-food purposes in Europe 
  • Starch plastics-Types and importance
  • Starch plastic production technologies 
  • Production of starch plastics
  • Partially fermented starch
  • Native Starch
  • Destructurised starch (Thermoplastic starch, TPS)
  • Chemically modified starch 
  • Starch Blends
  • Properties and uses of various chemical modified corn starch
  • Common Non-bio based and biodegradable copolymers used in starch blends
  • Biodegradability and biocontent of starch blends
  • A scheme for synthesizing reactive starch blends
  • Starch composites
  • Conversion technologies
  • Chemical and physical properties
  • Mechanical and thermal properties
  • Technical substitution potential
  • Applications today and tomorrow
  • Partially Fermented Starch Plastic
  • Destructurized starch
  • Chemically modified starch
  • Technical substitution potential for starch plastics (the table below gives the views of the companies questioned)
  • Starch Blends
  • Main applications for starch blends share of interviewed company's total production by market sector

STARCH BASED COMPLETELY BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS

  • Structure and properties of starch 
  • Molecular structure of starch
  • Preparation of starch based biodegradable polymers
  • Physical blends
  • Blend with synthetic degradable polymers 
  • Thermal and mechanical properties of thermoplastics starch/polylacide (TPS/PLA) blends
  • Blend with biopolymers
  • Chemical derivatives

APPLICATIONS OF STARCHBASED  BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS IN FOOD INDUSTRY

  • In agriculture
  • SEM photograph of strachs PVA/HA hydrogel (scale bar 3 um)
  • In medical field
  • Conclusions

SYNTHESIS OF BIO-DEGRADABLE PLASTIC FROM CORN STARCH

  • Process Overview
  • Properties
  • Effciency
  • Methods
  • Hydrolysis of Corn Starch
  • Bacterial Fermentation
  • Purification of Lactic Acid
  • Polymerization
  • Results
  • Discussion

BIODEGRADATION NATURE OF THERMOPLASTIC STARCH

  • Fabrication of thermoplastic starch
  • Properties of thermoplastic starch
  • Morphology
  • SEM micrographs of native wheat starch
  • SEM of extruded wheat starch based thermoplastic film
  • Conformation of inclusion model of a fatty acid in an amylose helix (Structure)
  • Conformation of inclusion model of a fatty acid in an amylose helix (Structure of Vhtype)
  • Maximum diffraction angle and average intermolecular distance observed from XRD
  • Mechanical behavior
  • Tensile properties of wheat flour based TPS having different glycerol content
  • Thermal stability
  • Glass transition temperature
  • Dynamic mechanical analysis of wheat flour based TPS of glycerol
  • Dynamic mechanical analysis of wheat flour based TPS of silicon dioxide

BIODEGRADATIN OF THERMOPLASTIC STARCH BASED MATERIALS

  • Mineralization of a ground starch film in liquid and solid media 
  • Scheme of DIN/CEN test used to determine compostability of materials
  • Mineralization in liquid and solid media
  • Mineralization of co-extruded starch/PLA films in liquid (norm ASTM D-5209-92)
  • vermiculture and compost (norm ASTM D-5338-92) media
  • Mineralization of co extruded starch/PLA films in liquid (norm ISO/CEN 14852), vermiculture and compost (norm ISO/CEN 14855) media

BIODEGRADABLE MOLDABLE  PRODUCTS AND FILMS COMPRISING BLENDS OF STARCH ESTERS AND POLYESTERS 

  • Bar graph showing  water absorption determined by cobb Test Method for  Polyethylene 
  • Graph of DSC of Films prepared from blends of acetate/propionate modified starch & body
  • Graph showing DSC Thermal analysis of an entrnded blend of propionate modified starch
  • Graph showing the composition of relative water absorption of unmodified starch, starch ester, and starch ester blend compositions
  • Methods (Examples)

CELLULOSIC POLYMERS

  • The structure of cellulose
  • Major fields of application in which the individual product groups of cellulose ethers are used
  • World fibre production 1920-2006
  • Cellulosic polymers for non plastic applications
  • Inorganic cellulose esters
  • World fibre production 1920-2006 (kton)
  • Cellulose ethers
  • Cellulosic plastics (including fibres)-Types and importance
  • Organic cellulose esters
  • Regenerated cellulose
  • Man made cellulose fibres
  • Man made cellulose films
  • Rigid cellulose acetate plastics

PRODUCTION OF CELLULOSE PLASTICS (INCLUDING FIBRES)

  • Cellulose  acetate
  • (CH2COOC2H5) is made by reacting cellulose with acetic anhydride
  • Regenerated  Cellulosic Fibres
  • The Viscose Process and Lyocell process 
  • Pulp 
  • The Viscose Process
  • Lyocell process
  • Recent R&D on regenerated cellulose
  • Pulp
  • Fibre designation according to ISO/TC 38
  • Cellulose Acetate fibres
  • Cellulose Hydrate and Cellulose  Ester Films
  • Properties
  • Mechanical, thermal and water retention properties of selected staple fibres
  • Mechanical, thermal and permeability properties of selected films
  • Technical substitution potential 
  • Applications today and tomorrow

CELLULOSE BASED POLYMERS WITH EXCELLENT MELT PROCESSABILITY

  • Thermoplasticity and mechanical properties of new cellulose based polymers 
  • Properties of cellulose Based Polymers Denatured With a Single Substituent
  • Properties of Cellulose Based Polymers Denatured with Multiple Substituents 
  • Impact Resistance Factors of New Cellulose Based Polymers 
  • Molding with Test Molds 
  • Characteristics of the Development Material
  • Conclusion

BIODEGRADATION OF LIGNIN

  • Lignocellulose
  • Lignin in biodegradation studies
  • Global carbon cycle
  • Microorganisms  during composting 
  • Compost environment 
  • Commonly utilized methods for analyzing, isolating, and synthesizing  lignin
  • The composting process
  • Temperature and pH variation during natural composting process
  • Bacteria
  • Fungi
  • Biodegradation of lignin
  • Lignin degrading fungi
  • Lignin degrading organisms
  • Lignin degrading Bacteria 
  • Studies in the compost environment
  • Studies in which lignin degradation during composting or in soil incubation has not been reported 
  • Studies in which lignin degradation during composting or in soil has been reported 
  • Conclusions and comments

BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERIC FILMS (NOVEL LIGNIN STARCH AND LIGNIN GELATIN)

  • Experimental
  • Materials and methods
  • Extraction of lignin from wood chips 
  • Preparation of Starch Lignin polymer
  • Preparation of Gelatin Lignin films
  • Preparation of Starch Gelatin Ligninfilms
  • Mechanical Testing 
  • Water absorption Test
  • Results and Discussions
  • Lists the important properties obtained from the tensile test of various starch lignin films
  • Lists the important properties obtained from the tensile test of various gelatin lignin films 
  • Tensile test of starch gelatin lignin films
  • Water absorption test 
  • Percentage of swelling of 90-10% starchlignin films at various pH
  • Percentage of swelling of 80-20% starch lignin films at varius pH
  • Percentage of swelling of 90-10% gelatin lignin films at various pH
  • Conclusions 

LIGNIN GRAFT COPOLYMER

  • Experiment
  • Isolation and Purification of Soda Lignin
  • Graft Copolymerisation
  • Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR)Analysis
  • Differential Scanning Calorimety (DSC) Analysis
  • Mud Property Test
  • Results and Discussion
  • FTIR Spectrs
  • DSC Thermogram
  • Infrared spectra of soda lignin, itaconic acid and LGC.
  • Thermogram of soda lignin
  • Mud Properties
  • Base mud rheological properties at different  concentrations of LGC
  • Base mud rheological properties before and after the thermal aging test (before and after rolling at 190 Degree for 16 h)
  • Base mud rheological properties before and after the thermal aging test (before and after rolling at 190 Degree for 16 h)
  • Conclusion

BIODEGRADABLE PLASTICS AND COMPOSITES FROM WOOD 

  • Structure 1
  • The Drawings
  • Chemical structure of the ester or thisester
  • Lignin-Containing material of a vasular plant
  • Element & Bonding pattern of Lignin
  • Bar graphs of weight loss for each consultant of a blend of grafted & lignin containing material
  • Description
  • Lignins and Woods Grafted with this Chemistry
  • Hydroperoxides Useful in Polymerization of Lignin containing materials
  • Some Halides Useful in Polymerization of Lignin containing Materials
  • Use of Different Salts with Hydrogen Peroxide to Initiate the Grafting Reaction
  • Poly (Lignin-G(1-Amidoethylene) Formed From Various Lignins and with Different Coinitiators
  • Synthesis of Polylignin
  • Synthesis Data and Physical Chracteristics of Graft Terpolymer
  • Synthesis of Poly(lignin-g-(2-propenamide-copolyol) a (Five or Ten oxyethylene units er properoic repeat unit)
  • Copolymerization Reactions of Lignin and phenylethylene
  • Copolymerization Reactions of Lignin and 1-Phenylethylene

PROCESS DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF BIOBASED POLYHYDROXYALKANOATES (PHA) PRODUCTION

  • Process Design and Assessment 
  • Process Index (SPI) methodology
  • Process Intensification (PI)
  • Sustainable Process Index (SPI)
  • Slaughtering Waste Utilization for Biobased Polyester Production
  • Rendering
  • Process flowchart
  • Hydrolysis
  • Biodiesel
  • PHA Production
  • Biogas
  • Conclusions

TRANSGENIC PLANTS PRODUCING POLYHYDROXYALKANOATES

  • Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs)
  • Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and Polyhydroxy-co-valerate (PHBV)
  • Biosynthesis of Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and Polyhydroxy co-valerate (PHBV)
  • Commercialization of PHBV by Bacterial Fermentation
  • Production of Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAS) in Plants
  • Arabidopsis thaliana
  • Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum)
  • Rapeed (Brassica napus)
  • Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)
  • Alfalfa (Medicago sativa)
  • Flax(Linium usitatissimum)
  • Oil palms (Elaeis guineensis and E.oleifera)
  • Construction of PHB and PHBV transformation vectors
  • Transformation of PHB and PHBV transformation vectors into oil palm
  • Conclusions and future prospects
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