processing technology of steels and stainless steels (hand book)

processing technology of steels and stainless steels (hand book)
Author: EIRI Books
ISBN: 9788189765972
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PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY OF STEELS AND STAINLESS STEELS

DEFINITIONS OF STEELS  WITH SPECIFICATIONS

  • Steels: Definitions
  • Steel Specifications

STEEL PROCESSING

IRON CARBON EQUILIBRIUM

  • Iron Carbon Equilibrium Diagram

CRYSTAL STRUCTURES OF IRON

  • Effects of Carbon
  • Crystal Structures in Fe-C Alloys
  • Effects of Alloying Elements
  • Critical Temperatures
  • Crystal Imperfections and Slip


FERRITE, PEARLITE AND CEMENTITE

  • Eutectoid Transformation
  • Pearlite Structure
  • Pearlite Transformation Kenetics
  • Interphase Precipitation
  • Divorced Eutectold Transformation: Dispersed  Carbide Particles in Ferrite
  • Proeutectoid Phase
  • Proeutectoid Phase Formation


MARTENSITE

  • Martensitic Transformation Kinetics
  • Crystallography of Martensitic Transformation
  • Morphology of ferrous martensites
  • Plate martensite



BAINITE

  • Bainite Transformation Start Temperatures
  • Bainite versus Ferritic Microstructures
  • Upper Bainite
  • Lower Bainite
  • Bainite Formation Mechanisms
  • Mechanical Behaviour of Ferrite Carbide Bainites


MICROSTRUCTURES OF FERRITIC

  • Classification System for Proeutectoid Ferritic Microstructures
  • Cooling Rate Induced Changes in Ferrite
  • Classification Sysems for Ferritic Microstructures
  • Polygonal or Equiaxed Ferrite
  • Widmanstatten Ferrite
  • Quasi Polygonal or Massive Ferrite
  • Bainitic or Acicular Ferrite
  • Granular Ferrite or Granular Bainitic Ferrite
  • Classification System for Proeutectoid Ferritic Microstructures
  • Cooling Rate Induced Changes in Ferrite
  • Classification Systems for Ferritic Microstructures
  • Polygonal or Equiaxed Ferrite
  • Widmanstatten Ferrite
  • Quasi Polygonal or Massive Ferrite
  • Bainitic or Acicular Ferrite
  • Granular Ferrite or Granular Bainitic Ferrite


IMPORTANCE OF AUSTENITE IN STEEL

  • Austenite Grain Size and Measurement
  • Austenite Formation
  • Time Temperature Austenitizing Diagrams
  • Grain Growth of Austenite
  • Effect of Second Phase Particies
  • Austenite Grain Size in Aluminium Killed Steels
  • Austenite Grain Size Control in Microalloyed Steels
  • Hot Deormation of Austenite


PROCESSING EFFECTS ON STEEL

  • Types and Origins
  • Inclusion Identification and Characterization
  • Effect of inclusions on Mechanical Properties
  • Solidification Chemical Changes
  • Solidification Dendrites and Inter dendritic Segregation
  • Hot Work and its Effect on Solidification Structure
  • Banded Microstructures
  • The Effect of Banding on Mechanical Properties


ISOTHERMAL TRANSFORMATION DIAGRAMS

CONTINUOUS COOLING TRANSFORMATION DIAGRAMS

  • Continuous Cooling Transformation and Bar Diameter 

FERRITIC MICRO STRUCTURES

  • The Ductile to Brittle Transition
  • Continuous and Discontinuous Yielding of Ferritic Microstructures
  • Aging Phenomena in Ferritic Micro structures
  • Grain Size Effects on Strength and Fracture of Ferritic Microstructures
  • Dispersion Strengthening of Ferritic Microstructures
  • Solid Solution Strengthening of Ferritic Microstructures

LOW CARBON STEELS

  • Low Carbon Steel: Hot Rolled Ferrite Pearlite Microstructures
  • Low Carbon Steel Processing by Cold
  • Rolling & Annealing
  • Processing of Cold Rolled and Annealed Sheet Steels for High Formability
  • Interstitial Free (IF) Steels


HEAT TREATMENTS

  • Annealing
  • Normalizing
  • Spheroidizing
  • Mechanical Properties of FerritePearlite Microstructures 

MEDIUM CARBON STEELS

  • Processing
  • Micro aloying Considerations
  • Microstructure of Micro alloyed Forging Steels
  • Mechanical Properties of Micro alloyed Forging Steels
  • Direct Cooled Steels with Nontraditional Bainitic Microstructures

HIGH CARBON STEELS

  • Rail Steels Structure and Performance
  • Patenting: Pearlite Formation for High Strength Steel Wire
  • Wire Drawing Deformation of Pearlite for High Strength Steel Wire
  • Fracture Mechanisms of Patented and Drawn Steel Wire 

HARNESS AND HARDENABILITY

  • Martensite Strength
  • Definitions of Hardenability
  • Hardness Distribution
  • Factors Affecting Cooling Rates
  • Severity of Quench
  • Quantitative Hardenability
  • Determination of Ideal Size
  • Jominy Test for Hardenability


TEMPERING OF STEEL

  • Mechanical Property Changes
  • Alloying Elements and Tempering
  • Structural Changes on Tempering
  • Matrix Changes during Tempering
  • Oxide Colours on Tempered Steels

TEMPERED CARBON STEELS

  • Dynamic Strain Aging in Martensite
  • Mechanical behaviour of Low Temperature Tempered Martensite


TOUGHNESS AND EMBRITTLEMENT

  • Introduction
  • Effects of Primary processing on Toughness
  • Hot Shortness Associated with Copper
  • Overheating during Heating for Forging
  • Aluminium Nitride Embrittlement
  • Quench Embrittlement
  • Tempered Martensite Embrittlement
  • Temper Embrittlement
  • Liquid Metal Embrittlement


RESIDUAL STRESSES, DISTORTION, AND HEAT TREATMENT

  • Origins of Residual Stresses
  • Heat Treatments to Reduce Surface Residual Tensile Stresses
  • Evaluation and Preduction of Residual Stresses and Distortion


SURFACE HARDENING

  • Flame Hardening
  • Induction Heating
  • Carburizing Processing Principles
  • Carburizing properties and Structure
  • Carburizing Fatigue and Fatigue and Fracture
  • Nitriding
  • Carbonitriding
  • Ferritic Nitrocarburizing


STAINLESS STEELS

  • Alloy Design and Phase Equilibria
  • Austentic Stainless Steels
  • Inter granular Carbides in Austenitic Stainless Steels
  • Martensite Formation in Austenitic Stainless Steels
  • Other Phases in Austenitic Stainless Steels
  • Other Austenitic Stainless Steels
  • Heat Treatment of Austenitic Stainless Steels
  • Ferritic Stainless Steels
  • Inter metallic Phases in Ferritic Stainless Steels
  • 475oC (885oF)
  • Embrittlement in Ferritic Stainless Steels
  • Martensitic Stainless Steels 

TOOL STEELS

  • Introduction
  • Classification of Tool Steels
  • Tool Steel Alloy Design
  • Primary Processing of Tool Steels
  • Annealing of Tool Steels
  • Stress Relief of Tool Steels
  • Hardening of Tool Steels
  • Preheating and Austenitizing
  • Hardenability and Martensite Formation
  • Grain Boundary Carbide Formation
  • Tempering of Tool Steels
  • Retained Austenite Transformation and Double Tempering in Tool Steels 


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