technology of perfumes, flavours and essential oils

technology of perfumes, flavours and essential oils
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ISBN: 9788189765224
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TECHNOLOGY OF PERFUMES, FLAVOURS AND ESSENTIAL OILS

CREATING A PERFUME

Introduction
Working within a Framework
Price
Packaging
Inspiration
The Practical Foundation
Inspiration
Response to Stinuli
Trial and error colours
Trial and error
Colours
Jeancard on composition
Limitations of Formulae
The Perfumer's knowledge of Chemistry
Creativity in the Art of Perfumery
Carles's Method
Merit of Carles's System
Tone
Volatility
Intensity
Volume
Atmosphere
Tenacity
Fixation
Systematic Recording of Data

FLOWER PERFUMES AND THEIR FORMULATIONS

Introduction
Rose
Jasmine
Orangeflower and Neroli
Violet
Acacia
Broom
Carnation
Types of Camation
Oeillet de nice Garden pink
Sea pink
Cyclamen
Fougere (Fern)
Gardenita
Hawthorn
Heliotrope
Honeysuckle
Hyacinth
Iris
Litac
Lity of the Valley
Linden (Lime Blossom)
Mangotia
Mignonette (Reseda)Mimosa
Narcissus
Nardo
New Mown Hay
Nicotiana
Opopanax
Orchid (Orchidee)
Pansy
Peony
Phlox
Sweet Pea
Syringa (Philadelphus)
Trefle (Clover)
Tuberose
Verbena
Wallflower
Wistaria
Ylang-Ylang

SOPHISTICATED/FANTASY PERFUMES AND THEIR FORMULATIONS

Introduction
Aldehyde Perfumes
Chypre Types
Oriental Perfumes
Green Perfumes
Dominant Note Types
The Ambergns Note
Manufacturing Processes
Alcoholic Strengths
Control

PACKAGING OF PERFUMES

Introduction
Packaging in the Past
The Impact of Aerosols
Perfume Identity
The Name
The Bottle
Labels
Cartons and Coffrets
External Wrapping
Perfume and the World of Fashion
The Question of Colour
The Means of Advertising
Press Publicity
Samples and Models

TESTING OF PERFUME

Introduction
Sampling
Sampling Equipment
Closed type (Undivided)
Closed type (Divided)
Open Type
Sampling Scoop
Sampling Iron Tanks
Cr.teria for conformity
For Individual samples
Examples
Packaging and labelling
Instructions regarding costly materials
Analysis
Proparation of the Material for Physico Chemical Analysis
Physical Analysis
Estimation of relative density
Estimation of relative density by Pyknometer
Principle
Apparatus
Procedure
Calculation
Determination of freezing Point
Principle
Apparatus
Procedure
Results
Determination of refractive index by refractometer
Principle
Apparatus
Refractometer, light source  (sodium light)
Precedure
Calculation
Determination of solubility in ethanol
Principle
Apparatus
Reagents
Procedure
Calculations
Determination of optical rolation and specific rotation by polarimeter
Principle
Apparatus
Procedure
Calculation
Determination of melting Point  and melting range principle
Apparatus
Procedure
Results
Determination of boiling (Distillation) renge Principle
Apparatus
Procedure
Method for offactory assessment of natural and synthetic perfumery materials
Principle
Terminology
Material Requirements
Ethyl alcohol, Perfumery grade
Diethyl phthalate, Perfumery grade
Determination of residue on evaporation
Apparatus
Preparation of sample
Procedure
Calculation
Chemical Analysis
Determination of Content of alcohol insoluble solid impurities
Principle
Procedure
Calculation
Determination of water content
Principle
Reagent
Apparatus
Calculation
Determination of acid value
Principle
Apparatus
Reagents
Procedure
Determination of ester value, content of esters and combined alcohols
Principle
Apparatus
Reagents
Prepared sample
Procedure
Calculation
Determination of ester value after acetylation and free alcohols
Apparatus
Reagents
Procedure
Calculation
Principle
Apparatus
Reagents
Procedure
Calculation
Determination of carbohyl value and content of carbonyl compounds
Hydroxylammonium chloride method Method A
Principle
Calculation
Principle
Apparatus
Reagents
Procedure
Calculation
Determination of phenols
Principle
Apparatus
Reagents
Procedue
Determination
Calculation
Determination of heavy metals
Determination of lead content
Apparatus
Procedure
Reagent blank determination
Expression of results
Determination of Iron
Reagents
Standard iron solution
Procedure
Detection of petroleum and mineral oils
Apparatus
Reagents
Procedure
Estimation of chlorinePrinciple
Apparatus
Procedure
Result
Determination of cineole content Principle
Apparatus
Reagents
Procedure
Calculation

AEROSOL SPRAY

Manufacturing Process
Essence of Perfumery
Synthetic Rose Otto No. 1056
Red Roses No. 1057
Violet No. 1068
Plant Economics
Land and Building
Plant & Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/Annum
Profit Sales Ratio
Rate of Return
Break Even Point (BEP)

AROMATIC PERFUMERY COMPOUNDS

Formulation and raw materials
Fancy Bouquet
Manufacturing Process
Process
Royale Bouquet
Process
Plant Economics
Land and Building
Plant & Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/Annum
Profit Sales Ratio
Rate of Return
Break Even Point (BEP)


SCENTS AND PERFUMES

Process of Manufacture
Extraction Process
Extraction Volatile Solvent
Plant Economics
Land and Building
Plant & Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/Annum
Profit Sales Ratio
Rate of Return
Break Even Point (BEP)

SPRAY (PERFUMES)

Manufacturing Process
General Procedure
Synthetic Rose otto No. 1056
Red Roses. No. 1057
Violet No. 108
Plant Economics
Land and Building
Plant & Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/Annum
Profit Sales Ratio
Rate of Return
Break Even Point (BEP)

FLORAL OILS

Selection of Site
Raw Materials
Treatment of the Ingredients
Manufacture by Maceration
Concentrating the Preparation
Hastening the process
Tier system
Another Tier Arrangement
Oil Direct from the Seeds
Recipes
Bella Oil
Jasmine Oil
Chameli Oil
Champaka Oil
Kantali Champaka Oil
Jahuri Champaka Oil
Dolan Champaka Oil
Nageswar Champaka Oil
Henna Oil
Gul Henna Oil
Musk Henna Oil
Janti Oil
Mallika Oil
Tuberose  Oil
Rose Oil
Bakul Oil
Ketaki Oil
Kamini Oil
Lemon Flowers Oil
Gandharaj Oil
Madhumalali Oil
Khus Oil
Lotus Oil
Storing

MANUFACTURING PROCESSES OF FLAVOURS

Introduction
The Thermally Processed
Flavours (Meat and Savory Flavours)
Protein Hydrolysates
Yeast and Autolyzed
Yeast  Extract
Basic Process Flavourings
Complex Process Flavourings
Encyme Modification and Fermentation The Dairy Flavours
Milk and Cream Flavours
Cultured Dairy Flavours
Butter Flavour
Cheese Flaours
Creation of Dairy Flavours
Regulatory Issues

NON-ALCOHOLIC FLAVOURS

Compounding
Vanilla Flavour (True)
Lemon Flavour
Orange Flavour
Vanilla Flavour
Vanilla Bean Flavour
Limitation Rasberry Flavour
Plant Economics of Non- Alcoholic Flavours
Rated Plant Capacity
Land and Building
Plant and Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total Working  Capital/Month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/Annum
Profit Sales Ratio
Rate of Return
Break Even Point (B.E.P.)

FLAVOURS FRUIT (WHISKEY, VODKA, GRAPE BUTTER SCOTCH AND RUM)

Artificial Flavourings
Process Flow Diagram of Rum Flavour
Manufacturing Process
For Rum Process
Plant Economics of Fruit Flavours
Rated Plant Capacity
Land and Building
Plant and Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total Working  Capital
Raw Materials
Total working capital/month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/Annum
Profit Sales Ratio
Rate of Return
Break Even point (B.E.P.)

TERPENELESS MENTHOL CRYSTALS

Manufacturing Process
Fractional Distillation of D.M.O. for Removar of  Terpene
Extraction of Menthol
Crystallization
Separation of the menthol Crystals from the Dementholized Oil
Drying the Menthol Crystals
Yield of Menthol & Dementholized Mint Oil
Plant Economics of Terpeneless  Menthol Crystals
Land and Building
Plant and Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total Working  Capital
Raw Materials
Total working capital/month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/Annum
Profit Sales Ratio
Rate of Return
Break Even point (B.E.P.)


TRENDS IN TRADE OF ESSENTIAL OILS

Introduction
Indian Scenario
Uses of Essential Oils

DEMAND FOR ESSENTIAL OILS


SUPER CRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION (SCFE) TECHNOLOGY FOR SPICE EXTRACTION

Abstract
Introduction
Scope of this presentation
Supercritical Fluid Extraction System (SCFE)
Working Principle and SCFE Process Description
Carton Dioxide as SC Solvent its Plust Point
Advantages of the  SCFE process
Parameters to be Determined in SCFE Process Design Need for Basic Process Data
Important Parameters of the SCF Extraction Plant  for  Spices (19)
SCF Extraction of Spice Essential Oils, Oleoresins and Major Chemical Constituents present therein
SCFE of Pepper Oil
SCF CO2 Extraction Versus Conventional
Solvent Extraction
SCFE of Black Pepper  Oleoresin
SCFE of Ginger Oil
SCFE (CO2) of Piperine Pepper
Economics of the SCFE Process
Commercial Scale SCFE Plants in U.K. Austria Germany, Australia & France
Factors Affecting plant designing
Other commercial SCFE Activity Areas
Future Scope for SCFE Process

CITRONELLA OIL

Planting and Cultivation
Harvesting
Distillation
Distillation Process Erection and distillation of suitable type of still
The Election and Operation of suitable type of still
Water and Steam still
Fuel
Steam Stills
Condenser
Storage of Citronella Oil
Determination of Aidehyde and Ketones
Process flow sheet
Procedure
Natural Sulphite Method
Procedure
Plant Economics of  Citronella Oil
Land and Building
Plant and Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total Working  Capital
Raw Materials
Total working capital/month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/Annum
Profit Sales Ratio
Rate of Return
Break Even point (B.E.P.)


CLOVE OIL

Process of Manufacture
Plant Economics of Clove Oil
Rated Plant Capacity
Land and Building
Plant and Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total Working  Capital
Raw Materials
Total working capital/month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/Annum
Profit Sales Ratio
Rate of Return
Break Even point (B.E.P.)

EXTRACTION OF  ESSENTIAL OILS BY SUPER CRITICAL FLUID (CARBON DIOXIDE) METHOD FROM FLOWERS, HERBS AND SPICES

Manufacturing Process
Extraction of Essential Oil from Flowers
Solvent Extraction Process using super critical Fluid (CO2)
From Flowers
Process flow  Diagram
From Herbs
Process flow Diagram for Extraction of Essential Fluid Method
Process flow diagram from Extraction of Essential oils from spices using super  critical Fluid (SCF) method
From Spices
Plant Economics
Land and Building
Plant and Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total Working  Capital
Raw Materials
Total working capital/month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/Annum
Profit Sales Ratio
Rate of Return
Break Even point (B.E.P.)

EUCALYPTUS OIL

Process of Manufacture
Distillation
Distillation Processes
Operation
Refining
Yield
Location  Conditions
Raw Materials
Market
Water Position
Transportation Facilities
Labour
Power and Fuel
Plant Economics of Eucalyptus Oil
Rated Plant Capacity
Land and Building
Plant and Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total Working  Capital
Raw Materials
Total working capital/month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/Annum
Profit Sales Ratio
Rate of Return
Break Even point (B.E.P.)

GINGER OIL

Manufacturing Process
Preparation of Raw Materials
Cleaning
Milling
Soaking
Loading  of Charging
Bleaching of Ginger
Distillation
Practice of Distillation
Steam Distillation
Flow Diagram for Ginger Oil
Plant Economics of Ginger Oil
Rated Plant Capacity
Land and Building
Plant and Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total Working  Capital
Raw Materials
Total working capital/month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/Annum
Profit Sales Ratio
Rate of Return
Break Even point (B.E.P.)


JASMINE FLOWER OIL

Manufacturing Process
Extraction with Solvent
Constrcution of Apparatus
Concentration of Solutions
Final Concentration
Concrete Flower Oils
Conversion of Concretes
into Absolutes
Plant Economics
Rated Plant  Capacity
Land & Building
Plant and Machinery
Fiex Capital
Raw Materials
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/Annum
Profit Sales Ratio
Rate of Return
Break Even Point (B.E.P.)

PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF JASMINE FOR ESSENTIAL OIL

Extraction of Jasmine
Concrete and its Economic  Prospect


LEMON GRASS OIL

Manufacturing  Process
Process Flow Diagram
Raw Material Position

PALMOIL CRUSHING UNIT

Manufacturing Process
Technology and Process
Description
Reception of Raw Material
Sterilizing
Stripping
Digesting
Pressing/Oil Extraction
Process flow Sheet  for Palm Oil
Clarification and Storage
Plant Economics
Rated Plant Capacity
Land & Building
Plant & Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/Annum
Profit Sales Ratio
Rate of Return
Break Even Point (B.E.P.)

ESSENTIAL  OILS BY STEAM DISTILLATION

Introduction
Principle of Distillation
Efficiency of Distillation
Factors affecting efficiency
Practical Distillation of Herbs
Surface Born Oils
Moistur balance of Still
Centre Born Oils
Water Distillation
Effect of oils affinity for water
Effect  of Hydrolysis
Effect of temperature/Pressure Differential
The effect of Turburlence
The effect of Cohobation
Design of Equipment
Still
Condenser
Receiver
Steam Generator
Storage

COMPOSITION OF ESSENTIAL OIL FROM FLOWERS OF KEORA

Abstract
Introduction
Composition of Essential Oil of Keora flowers
Chemical Composition of Keora Oil


DISTILLATION OF EUCALYPTUS HYBRID OIL

Abstract
Introduction
Materials and Methods
Discussions
Conclusion
Percentage of Climate in the oil

TURMERIC  LEAF OIL

Abstract
Introduction
Materials  and Methods
Plant Material
Distillation of Essential Oil
GC analysis
Identification of the compounds
Results and Discussion
Composition of the Essential oil of Turmeric Leaf

ESSENTIAL OILS  FLAVOURS

Gas Liquid Chromatography
Capillary and Chiral 
Gas Chromatography
Preparative Gas Chromatography
Column Chromatography
Thin Layer  Chromatography
Instrumental Thin Layer Chromatography(High Performance Thin Layer  Chromatography H.PTLC
Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE)/Fractionation/(SFF)/ Chromatography (SFC)
Techniques Ancillary to Gas Chromatography
Retention Indices
Mass Spectrometry
Multidimensional GC-MS
HRGC-FTIR
High Pressure
Liquid Chromatogrph
Chemical Transformation
Techniques Ancillary to Liquid Chromatography
Ultra Violet and Infra Red Spectroscopy
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
Detection of Synthetics in Natural Oils by Isotopes Analysis
Isotope Analysis by MS
ISotope Analysis by NMR
Intelligent  Sensor Technology

TECHNOLOGY OF ESSENTIAL OILS

Odoriferous  Elements
Preliminary Treatment
Process of Manufacture
By Maceration
Exhaustion of Oil Bearing Sources
Concentration of the Oil
Collecting the Oil
By Distillation
By Expression
Enfleurage
Solvent Extraction
Absolutes
Preservation
Properties
Ajwan Oil
Amla Oil
Aniseed Oil
Camphor
Cinnamon Oil
Citrus Oils
Cloves Oil
Cardamom Oil
Cassia Oil
Eucalyptus  Oil
Geranium Oil
Ginger Grass Oil
Khus Oil
Lemon Grass Oil
Lemon Rind Oil etc.
Linaloe Oil
Palmarosa Or Rosha
Grass Oil
Orange Oil
Pumelo Oil
Rose Oil
Sandalwood Oil
Salresin or Chua Oil
Turpentine Oil

ESSENCES AND OTTOS: PREPARATION OF ESSENCES

Mode of Preparation
Floral Extracts
Classes of Essences
Blending
Filtering and Packing

NATURAL ESSENCES

Bakul
Henna
Musk Henna
Ketaki
Bela
Mallika
Gandharaj
Hasu No Henna
Champaka
Jahuri Chamapaka
Kantali Champaka
Rose
Tuberose
Chameli
Jasmine
Khus
Fanti
Orange
Ambergris
Musk
Patchauli
Cloves
Lavender
Pumelo
Cassia
White Rose
Orange
Bergamot
Violet
Rose Geranium
Lemon
Sandalwood

MANUFACTURING OF ARTIFICIAL ESSENCES

Simple  Essences
Handkerchief Essences
Compound Essences
Forgot Me-Not
Remember Me
Sir Walter Scott
Essence Jasmine
Kiss me quick
Musk Rose
Essence Vicoria
American Beuty
Essence Tuberose Lily
Essence Rose
Nizam Monte Cristo
Sultana
Lavenia
Jung Bahadur
Jubilee Rajanigandha
Madhumati
Canaga Kusum
Marsenil
Lily Blossom
Chandra Mallika
Cerry Laurel
Emperor
Cashmere Bakul Coronation
Cherry Vanilla
Prince Rose
Boquet Empress
Durbar
Viceroy Verbena
Nepolean Lily
Heliotrope
Hyacinth

PREPARATION OF OTTOS

Floral Ottos
Rose
Bela
Chameli
Jasmine
Mallika
Madhumalati
Henna
Musk Henna
Champaka
Kantali Champaka
Jahuri Champaka
Dolan Champaka
Negeswar Champaka
Bakul
Gandharaj
Hasu-No-Henna
Patchauli
Tuberose
Keora
Kamini
Khus
Janti
Pumelo
Shephalica
Sandalwood
Artificial Ottos
Marketing

ROSE AND KEORA WATER

Rose Water and Otto
Keora Water

TOILET WATER

Lavender Water
Amber Lavender
Ambergris Lavender Water
Eau De Lavender Millefleurs
Odoriferous Lavender Water
Florica Water
Violet Water
Eau De Colone

TECHNOLOGY OF FLAVOURS

Introduction
Flavour Classification
Flavour Formation in Plants
Biogenesis of Fruits Aroma
Flavours from Fatty Metabolism
Flavours from Amino Acid  Metabolism
Flavours formed from Carbohydrate Metabolism
Flavour Formation in Vegetable
Flavour Formation from Crysteine Sulfoxide Derivatives
Flavour Formation from Gluconsinolates
Additional Pathways for Vegetable Flavour Formation
Location of Flavour in Plant
Influence of Genetics, Nutrition Environment, Maturity and Storage on Flavour
Conclusions
Chemistry of Essential Oils
Terpenes
Oxygenated Terpenoid Compounds
Benzenoid Compounds
Compounds Containing
Nitrogen and  Sulfur
Nitrogen Compounds
Sulfur Compounds
Sulfur Containing Oils
White Mustard
Black (Brown) Mustard
Fruit Flavours
Aromatic Components
Fruit Sugars and Acids
Monosaccharides
Disaccharides
Trisaccharides
Nonsugars (Polysaccharides)
Flavour of Dairy Products
Milk
Cheese
Flavour Development
Fatty Acids
Carbonyls
Sulfur Compounds
Amino Acids and Peptides
Flavour Balance
Roquefort (Blue) Cheese Flavour
Flavour Development
Fermentation
Fungi
Black Tea Aroma
Flavour Formation
During Thermal Processing
Nonenzymatic Browning
General Overview  of Maillard Browning
Factors Influencing
Browning  Rate
Temprature
pH
Water Activity
Influence of Fat
Summary
Formation of Flavour Compounds
Flavours from Lipids
Deep Fat Fried Flavours
Hydrolytic Reactions
Oxidation
Pyrolysis Reactions
Effect of Frying Condition on Flavour
Mechanisms of Flavour Formation
Lactones
Seafood Flavours
Caramelization
Flavours Formed Via Fermentation
Esters
Acids
Carbonyls
Alcohols
Terpenes
Lactones
Pyrazines
Conclusions

ROLE OF PERFUMER

QUALITY CONTROL IN AROMATIC PLANTS


Introduction
Biosynthetic pathway of essential oil
Metabolic interconversion of monoterpenes of cymbopogon
Biosynthetic of monoterpenes of Mentha
Genetic manipulation of enzyme activity
Genetic manipulation of marker traits
Genetic manipulation for tolerance  to seasonal variation
Genetic manipulation of quality Application and scientific outputs
Imporoed major  constituents(s) of oil
Modified chemical profile of oil
Genetically rectified defects in oil composition
Conclusion

PALMAROSA OIL

Introduction
Materials and Methods
Results and Discussion
Oil Yield
Herbage yield
Oil Recovery Percentage and Geraniol Control

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF LEMONGRASS VARIETIES

Materials and Methods
Results and Discussion

KEWDA ESSENTIAL OIL AND ATTAR

Introduction
Materials and Methods
Determination and Methoxyl Group
Determination of Hydroxyl Group
Methoxyl Value Determination
Conclusion


PALMAROSA OILS

Introduction
Materials and Methods
Results and Discussion

SANDALWOOD

Introduction
Materials and Methods
Materials
Apparatus
Results and Discussion

TECHNOLOGY OF PALMAROSA OIL

Introduction
Material and Methods
Results and Discussion
Plant Establishment & Growth
Herb and Oil Yield
Seedlings Growth  and Development
Conclusion

LEMONGRASS OIL

Introduction
Materials and Methods
Results and Discussion
Effect on Plant Height  and  Number of Tillers
Effect on Herbage and Oil Yield
Oil and Citral Content

PATCHOULI OIL

Introduction
Materials and Methods
Growth Attributes of Patchouli
Differences due to Cultivars
Growth as influenced by Nitrogen
Oil Content, Fresh Herbage Yield and Oil Yield
Variation due to Cultivars
Influence to Nitrogen on Yields

ROSE SCENTED GERANIUM

IntroductionGenotypes/Varienties
Cultivation Practices
Planting
Spacing
Intercropping
Fertilizers
Plant Growth Regulators
Weeds
Partial Shade
Season
Pests and Diseases
Harvesting Distillationg and Economics
Quality of Oil

BASIL OIL

Introduction
Materials  and Methods
Results and Discussion

TURPENTINE OIL

Introduction
Materials and Methods
Results and Discussion

ESSENTIAL OIL CONSTITUENTS OIL HYDRODISTILLATION VS CO2  EXTRACTION

Introduction
Collistemone Ianceolatus
Murrya koenigii
Lantana camara
Tagetes arecta
Ocimum sanctum
Materials and Methods
Results and discussion
Conculsion
Acknowledgement

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