technology of pvc compounding and its applications (hand book)

technology of pvc compounding and its applications (hand book)
Author: EIRI Books
ISBN: 8186732888
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TECHNOLOGY OF PVC COMPOUNDING AND ITS APPLICATIONS

PVC RESINS MANUFACTURING & PROPERTIES

  • Introduction
  • Manufacture of PVCSuspension Polymerization Process
  • Clean Reactor TechnologyLarge Reactor Technology
  • VCM Containment
  • Mass Polymerization Process
  • Emulsion Polymerization Process
  • PVC Mass Polymerization
  • Comparative of PVC Produced using Different Processes
  • Copolymers, Chemical Modification & Blends/Alloys of PVC
  • Introduction
  • Reactivity Rations for VCM Copolymerizations
  • PVC Copolymers
  • Vinyl Acetate Copolymers
  • Recipe for VCM-VAC Copolymerization
  • Effect of VAC on Properties of PVC Copolymer
  • Copolymers with Olefins
  • Effect of Ethylene or Propylene on PVC properties
  • Copolymer with Vinyldene Chloride
  • Copolymers with Acrylates
  • Chemically Modified PVC
  • Introduction
  • Syndiotactic PVC
  • Effect of PVC Polymerization Temperature on Crystallinity
  • Chlorinated PVC
  • Comparative  Properties of PVC & CPVC
  • PVC Grafts
  • Acrylic Graft
  • Properties of PVC Grafts
  • EVA grafted PVC
  • Cross linked PVC
  • Monomer for X-PVC Preparation
  • PVC Blends & Alloys
  • PVC/NBR Blend
  • Properties of PVC/NBR Blends
  • Powered NBR
  • PVC/NBR
  • Dynamically Vulcanized  PVC/NBR
  • Comparative Properties of PVC/NBR Blends and Thermoplastic Rubbers
  • Typical Properties of Elvaloy Resins
  • Comparative Properties of PVC/EVA Blends
  • PVC/ABS Alloy
  • Dynamic Thermal Stability of PVC/ABS Alloys
  • Comparative Properties of PVC Alloys
  • PVC/Acrylic & Miscellaneous Alloys
  • Properties of PVC/Acrylic Alloys
  • Properties of PVC/Gadds Alloys
  • Heat Deflection under Load for PVC Alloy
  • Effect of processing Temp. on Rheological properties of PVC/Gadds Alloy
  • Effect of PVC:Gadds Composition on Torque 

PROCESSING OF PVC

  • PVC Resins
  • Molecular Weight
  • Injection Moulding
  • Extrusion
  • Additives for Improving Processing
  • Heat Stabilizers
  • Processing Aids
  • Lubricants
  • Impact Modifiers
  • Compounding
  • Low Shear Horizontal Mixers (Ribbon Blenders)
  • Higher Shear Vertical Nonfluxing Mixers
  • Dry Blend Properties
  • Low Shear and High Shear Mixing in Horizontal, Jacketed Cylindrical Blenders
  • Hot Melt Compounding
  • Two Stage (Farrel) Continous High Intensity Fluxing Mixers
  • Compounding Lines-Batch Type
  • Suggested K-Value of PVC Resins
  • Influence of Formulations on processing behavious
  • The Polymer
  • Relation of Polymer K-Values with Threshold Temperature
  • Lubricants
  • Heat Stabilizers
  • Processing Aids
  • Impact Modifiers
  • Plasticized PVC
  • Extrusion
  • PVC Compounds-Some Routes and Processing
  • Calendering
  • Injection Moulding
  • Unplasticized PVC
  • Typical Formulation of Rigid and Flexible  PVC Films and Functions of various components there-in
  • General Types of Industrial PVC Compounding Operations
  • Equipments for Compounding of PVC
  • Calendar Products and their Products
  • Processing of Rigid PVC
  • Injection Moulding -Rigid PVC
  • Injection Blow Moulding (IBM)
  • A Typical Injection Moulding Screw Design for Rigid PVC Material
  • Three Station Horizontal Indexing Injection Blow Process
  • Biaxial Orientation
  • Conclusions
  • Typical High-Flow PVC Formulation
  • Blow Moulded Bottles and Containers
  • Reheat Stretch Blow
  • PET Vis-A-Vis PVC Stretched Bottles
  • PVC Heat Shrinkable Bands
  • Blow Moulding of PVC Bottles
  • Injection Blow Moulding
  • Orientation
  • Cushioned Vinyl Flooring
  • Wide Choice of Different Substrates
  • Streen Coating System
  • Way ahead in Flexibility
  • Versatility in Coating
  • One Pass Production
  • Unique Process Improvements
  • Principle of Operation
  • Embossing problems a thing of the past
  • Double sided Coating of Openweave Fabrics
  • Single screen coating process
  • Screen to screen coating process
  • Principle of application
  • Recycling
  • Description of the Process
  • Compounding Internal Mixers
  • Internal Mixers
  • Schematic View of Compounding Operations
  • Unit Operations to Produce Glass Filled Polymers
  • Post Compounding Operations
  • Schematic of Banbury Mixer
  • Schematic of a Grnulator
  • Schematic of a strand pelletizer


ADDITIVES FOR PVC

  • Introduction
  • Plasticizers
  • Plasticizer usage for PVC Compound
  • Typical Properties of Plasticizer
  • Physical Properties of Phthalate Plasticizers
  • Physical Properties of less common Phthalates
  • Properties of Specially Plasticizers
  • Physical Properties of Miscellaneous Plasticizers
  • Plasticizer Efficiency and Properties of Flexible PVC
  • Plasticizer Efficiency
  • Dry Blending Time for Plasticizers
  • Effect of Plasticizers on Plastisol Gelation Temperature
  • Effect of Structure of Plasticizer on PVC Properties
  • Properties of Flexible PVC compounds at 50 PHR Phthalate Plasticizer Level
  • Physical Properties of Flexible PVC using specially plasticizers
  • Requirements for PVC Plasticizers
  • General Relationships between the structure of Plasticizers and their behaviour in PVC
  • Characteristics of the Major Types of Plasticizer
  • Polymeric Modifiers for PVC
  • Modifiers for Flow Improvement
  • Flow Promoter for PVC
  • Haake Rheogram for Rigid PVC Pipe Compound
  • Standard PVC Pipe Compound 2 PHR Modifier
  • Effect of Level of Flow Promoters on UPVC Rheological Properties
  • Effect of Low Molecular Weight Polymers
  • Typical Properties of Flow Promoters
  • Modifiers for Impact Enhancement
  • Mechanism of Impact Resistance
  • Effect of Modifier Quantity
  • Effect of EVA
  • Effect of Processing Time on Impact Strength
  • Systems with Honeycomb Network
  • Effect of Processing Conditions
  • Effect of Processing Conditions of UPVC
  • Effect of MBS/Acrylic Quantity on UPVC Impact Strength
  • Effect of Composition on Impact Resistance
  • Effect of Temperature of UPVC
  • Impact
  • Applications for Impact Modifiers
  • Heat Stabilizers for PVC
  • HCI Absorption
  • Elimination of Labile chlorine
  • Prevention of Autoxidation
  • Addition to polyene secuence
  • Carbenium ion elimination
  • Lead Stabilizers
  • Structure of Lead Stabilizers
  • Tin Based Stabilizers
  • Structure of Tin stabilizers
  • Barium Cadmium Stabilizers
  • Stabilization by Barium and Cadmium Stabilizers
  • Calcium-Zinc Stabilizers
  • Non Metallic Stabilizers
  • Epoxy Based Stabilizers
  • Effect of Epoxy and Phosphite on PVC Static Thermal Stability
  • Organic Phosphites
  • Polyhydric Alcohols
  • Antioxidants
  • Light Stabilizers
  • Lubricants
  • Appearance and Melting Point of Lubricants
  • Calcium Carbonate
  • Physical Properties of CaCO3 Fillers
  • Clay & Talc
  • Silicas & Glass Fibres
  • Properties of Glass Fibre Reinforced PVC
  • Flame Retardant Agents
  • LOI for Various Plastics
  • Chlorinated Flame Retardants
  • Brominated Compounds Metal Oxides
  • Chemicals and Additives-A Review of Future Outlook
  • Colourants
  • Blowing Agents
  • Heat Stabilizers
  • Plasticizers
  • UV Stabilizers
  • Antimicrobials
  • Flame Retardants
  • Phosphate Ester Flame
  • Retardants/Plasticizers for Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)
  • Effect of Various Flame Retardants in Plasticized
  • Polyvinyl Chloride
  • Plasticized PVC with High Oxygen Index Use of Brominated Phosphate
  • Typical High emperature Wire Cable Polyvinyl Chloride Flame Retardant

COMPOUNDING

  • Introduction
  • Mixing Theory
  • Limitations of Mixing Theory
  • Mixing Evaluation
  • Fillers
  • Common Fillers and their uses
  • Plasticizers
  • Colorants
  • Heat Stabilisers
  • Antioxidants
  • Ultraviolet Light Absorbers
  • Antistatic Agents
  • Flame Retardants
  • Blowing Agents
  • Lubricants
  • Methods of Compounding
  • Intensive Dry Mixers
  • Internal Intensive Batch Mixers
  • Continous Mixer
  • Two Roll Mills and Pelletisers
  • Underwater Pelletiser
  • Single Screw Extruders
  • Compounder Extruder
  • Twin Screw Extruder
  • Compounding Lines


COMPOUNDING OF PVC

  • Selection & Characterization of PVC
  • Major Types of PVC Resins
  • Processing & Applications of PVC
  • PVC Resins Properties
  • Relation of PVC K-Value, Viscosity & Mole Wt.
  • Effect of Polymerization Temp on % Crystallinity
  • Syndiotactic Structure
  • PVC Morphology and PVC Characteristics
  • Effect of PVC Morphology on Extruder Output
  • Rheological Properties of PVC Dry Blends
  • Effect of PVC Resin Bulk Density on Rheological Properties
  • Effect on Processing RPM on Rheological Properties
  • Effect of Processing Temp. on Rheological Properties
  • Effect of Bulk Density on DOP Absorption
  • Introduction
  • Elements of Compounding
  • Methods of Compounding
  • Intensive Dry Mixers
  • Internal Intensive Batch Mixers
  • Contionuous Mixer
  • Two Roll Mills
  • Single Screw Extruders
  • Compounder Extruder
  • Twin Screw Extruder
  • What are some of them ?
  • Custom Compounding for Special Properties
  • General Guidelines for PVC Formulations for Common Product
  • Formulating Rigid PVC Compounds
  • PVC Pipe Formulations
  • PVC Conduit Pipe Formulations
  • Window Profile Formulations
  • Interior PVC Profile Formulations
  • PVC Siding Formulations
  • Cellular PVC Profile Formulations
  • Extruded PVC Sheet and Film (Single -Screw)
  • Calendered PVC Sheet and Film Formulations-Second Alternative
  • PVC Injection Moulded Pipe Fitting Formulations
  • High Flow PVC Injection Moulding Formulations
  • Extrusion Blow Moulding Rigid PVC Containers
  • Crystal Clear Food Contact Bottles
  • Clear Bottles good on taint and odour
  • Blow Moulded Bottle Formulations
  • Blow Moulded PVC Bottle Formulations
  • CA-ZN Formulation (Mineral Water)
  • CA-ZN Epoxy Recipe for 1 Litre Bottle
  • PVC Bottle for Shampoo
  • Shoe Soles
  • Tests for Compound
  • Floor Coverings/Wall Coverings
  • Typical Light Stable Formulation
  • Carbon Black Properties
  • Comparison -Titanium Dioxide and Zinc Oxide
  • Portable Water Pipe (Extruded from Dry Blend)
  • General Purpose Vinyl Film by Calendering
  • Sheeting for Outdoor Upholstry

COMPOUNDING OF PVC PASTES

  • Plastisols
  • Compounding Ingredients of Plastisols
  • PVC Polymers
  • Plasticisers
  • Stabilisers
  • Fillers
  • Colourants
  • Thickeners
  • Other Additives
  • Organosols
  • Compounding Ingredients
  • Preparation of Pastes
  • Gelation
  • Applications of PVC Pastes
  • Rotational Casting Formulation for Dolls and Play Balls
  • Compounding of PVC Latices
  • Latex Property Modifiers
  • Latex Stabilisers
  • Surface active agent
  • Defoaming Agents
  • Thickeners
  • pH Modifiers and Buffers
  • Polymer End Properties Modifiers
  • Heat Stabilisers
  • Plasticisers
  • Fillers
  • Pigments
  • Antiblocking Agents
  • Coalescing Aids (Volatiles)
  • Handling and Processing
  • Mixing
  • Dipping
  • Coating
  • Spraying
  • Compounding of PVC Solution & Adhesives
  • Plasticizers
  • Stabilisers
  • Fillers
  • Pigments
  • Lubricants
  • Methods of Application of Solutions
  • Applications of Solutions Adhesives


TESTING OF RESINS AND COMPOUNDS

  • Testing of PVC Resin
  • K-Value
  • Bulk Density
  • Plasticizer Absorption
  • Particle Size Distribution
  • Electrical Conductivity of Water Extract
  • Powder Flow
  • Sulfated Ash Content
  • Fish Eye Count
  • Testing of PVC Compounds
  • Bulk Density
  • Shore Hardness
  • Tensile Strength/Elongation
  • Static heat Stability
  • Dynamic Heat Stability
  • Brabender/Haake Gelation & Degradation Time
  • Electrical Volume Resistivity
  • Volatile Loss
  • Ageing Test
  • Cold Bend Temp. Test
  • Testing of PVC End Products
  • Films/Sheets/Profiles
  • Tensile Stress at Yield
  • Test for Dimentional Change at 120o C
  • Rigid PVC Pipes for Potable Water Supplies
  • Dimensions of Pipes
  • Visual Appearance
  • Opacity
  • Short Term Hydraulic Test
  • Long Term Hydraulic Test
  • Reversion Test
  • Impact Strength at oC
  • Methylene Dichloride Test
  • Flexural Strength
  • Wires and Cables
  • Thermal Stability Test
  • Determination of PVC Cable insulation Degradation
  • Comparison of Techniques to Assess FVC Degradation
  • Problem Solving in PVC Compounding and Processing
  • Resin
  • Lubricants
  • The Role of Lubricant
  • In PVC Compounding
  • Stabilizers
  • Additives
  • Material Characteristics and its effect of processing resins
  • Development of an Optimum Formulation
  • New Do's and Don'ts
  • Plasticizer Migration
  • High Purity Non-Stain Plasticizers for Floor and wall Coverings
  • Testing
  • Sample Preparation
  • Cure
  • Stain Specimen Conditioning
  • Stain
  • TGATensile Properties
  • Hardness
  • Results
  • Chemical Resistance
  • Rigid
  • Chemical Resistance of Vinyl Compounds: Percent Change in Weight 

SPECIALITY PLASTIC COMPOUNDS & MASTERBATCHES

  • Introduction
  • Product
  • Coloured Masterbatches
  • Additive Masterbatch/Speciality Compounds
  • Market
  • Suggested Capacity
  • Land & Building
  • Raw Materials
  • Utilities
  • Manufacturing Process
  • Plant & Machinery
  • Personnels
  • Estimated Cost of the Project
  • Suggested Means of Financing 

PVC COMPOUNDS

  • Introduction
  • Product
  • Market
  • Suggest Capacity
  • Land & Building
  • Raw Materials
  • Utilities
  • Manufacturing Process
  • For Rigid Pipes
  • For Bottle Blowing
  • For Blown Film
  • For Flexible Hose Pipes
  • For Mineral Water Bottle
  • Plant & Machinery
  • Personnels
  • Estimated Cost of the Project
  • Suggested Means of Financing

XLPE CABLE COMPOUND, JELLY FILLED TELECOMMUNICATION CABLE COMPOUND & SHEATING COMPOUND

  • Introduction
  • Product
  • XLPE Compound
  • MDPE Compound
  • FRLS Compounds
  • Land & Building
  • Raw Materials
  • Utilities
  • Manufacturing Process
  • XLPE Compound
  • MDPE Compound FRLS & Low Halogen
  • Compounds
  • Plant & Machinery
  • Personnels
  • Estimated cost of Project
  • Suggested Means of Financing


PLASTIC GRANULES FROM FRESH RESIN

  • Manufacturing process of LDPE Granules from LDPE Resin
  • Plastic Filler Granules (PP)
  • PVC Granules
  • Process of Manufacture
  • Plant Economics
  • Fixed Capital
  • Raw Materials
  • Total Working Capital
  • Total Capital Investment
  • Turn Over/Annum

PLASTIC GRANULES

  • Process of Manufacture
  • Concentration of Blending
  • Removal of Colour to obtain Transparent Granules by Activated Carbon Treatment
  • Filteration
  • Distillation
  • Cooling and Dehumidifying
  • Granulation
  • Weighing, Filling and Packing
  • Plant Economics
  • Fixed Capital
  • Raw Materials
  • Total Working Capital
  • Total Capital Investment
  • Turn Over/Annum


APPLICATIONS OF PVC

  • Review of Major Applications
  • Rigid PVC Pipes
  • Advantages of Rigid PVC Pipes
  • Graphical Sketch of a Twin Screw Extruder
  • Applications
  • Chemical Resistance
  • Resistance of PVC Pipes to Common Chemicals under use Conditions
  • Composition Energy Saving of PVC Pipes
  • Weathering
  • Summary of the Testing Results
  • Flow through Rigid PVC Pipes
  • Flow or Friction Losses
  • Surge and Water Hammer
  • Economics of Rigid PVC Pipes
  • Water Flow Velocity
  • Start up
  • Schematic of a large tube die
  • some Common Problems and Solutions of Pipe Extrusion
  • Industrial Profiles
  • Various Forms
  • Major Applications
  • Cellular PVC Profiles, Boards and Pipes
  • Introduction
  • Technology of Structural Foam extrusion
  • Foaming
  • Foaming Processors
  • Free Foaming Process
  • Inward Foaming Process
  • Machine and Die Technology
  • Extruders
  • Dies
  • Chemical Blowing agents
  • Processing aids
  • PVC grades
  • Properties of Cellular UPVC Pipes
  • Physical Properties of Cellular UPVC Pipe
  • Physical Properties of Cellular UPVC Board and Profile
  • Manufacturing of PVC Sheets
  • Calendering
  • Extrusion of PVC Sheets
  • Extrusion Blowing of PVC Sheets
  • Calandrette Process
  • Further Processing of Sheets by Forming
  • Requirements of PVC Sheets
  • Roller Film Calender
  • Calenders
  • Blister Packaging
  • Vacuum Formed Products
  • Skin Packaging
  • Problems and Suggested Remedies in Sheet Extrusion
  • Calendered Film-Typical Problems
  • Thickness Variation
  • Film Curling or Side Bending
  • Flatness Defects
  • Blister Packaging
  • Calendering of Rigid PVC Compounds
  • Advantages of Calendering Process
  • Blister Packaging Components
  • Heat Seal Coatings
  • Selection of Paperboard
  • Blister Packing Vs Skin Packaging
  • Blister Packaging Machinery
  • Advantages of Blister Packs
  • Blister Packaging Constraints
  • Blister Packaging in Pharmaceutical Industry
  • some Typical Applications of PVC Sheets
  • Typical Blister Packaging Applications
  • End Use Applications Chart
  • Non Packaging Applications
  • Tropicalised Blister Pack-ANew Concept
  • Rigid PVC Free Foam Boards
  • Areas of Application Overseas
  • Advertising
  • Building Sector
  • Electrical Industry
  • Miscellaneous
  • Typical Values of PVC
  • Integral Foam Sheets
  • PVC Integral Foam Sheets Applications
  • Characteristics
  • Advantages
  • Fabrication
  • Major Applications
  • Expanded PVC for Replacement of Wood
  • Free Foaming
  • Surface Treatment
  • Fabrication of PVC Sheets
  • Matchining
  • Rigid
  • Flexible
  • Cutting
  • Rigid
  • Flexible
  • Drilling
  • Punching and Blanking
  • Planning
  • Routing and Milling
  • Screwing and Tapping
  • Grinding and Sanding
  • Engraving
  • Adhesive Bonding
  • PVC to Other Materials
  • PVC to itself
  • Printing and Metallising
  • Laminating and Plastification of Printed Master
  • Welding
  • Ultrasonic Welding
  • High Frequency and Radio Frequency Welding
  • Shaping of PVC
  • Cold
  • Hot
  • Three Dimensional Shaping
  • Simple Forming
  • Injection Moulding-Rigid PVC
  • Injection Blow Moulding (IBM)
  • Biaxial Orientation
  • High Flow Injection Moulding Applications
  • Conclusions
  • Typical High Flow PVC Formulation
  • Blow Moulded Bottles and Containers
  • Reheat Stretch Blow
  • Pet vis-a-vis PVC Stretched Bottles
  • PVC Heat Shrinkable Bands
  • Blow Moulding of PVC Bottles
  • Injection Blow Moulding
  • Orientation
  • Cushioned Vinyl Flooring
  • Wide Choice of Different Substrates
  • Prodution of Cushio Vinyl Flooring Using glass fibre
  • Production using asbestos mat
  • Rotary screen printing system for cushion vinyl flooring
  • Screen Coating System
  • Way ahead in FlexibilityVersatility in coating
  • The screen coating system: Advantages
  • One Pass Production
  • Unique Process Improvements
  • Principle of Operation
  • Embossing problems a thing of the past
  • Double sided Coating of Open weave Fabrics
  • Single Screen Coating process
  • Screen to screen coating process
  • Principle of application
  • PVC in Medical Applications
  • Typical Medical Grade PVC Compound for Extrusion
  • Moulding of PVC Footwear
  • Compounding
  • Moulding
  • Machines
  • Moulds
  • PVC Uppers
  • Processing
  • Coatings
  • Sectional View of a coating Machine
  • Various types of spreader
  • Rotational casting and slush moulding
  • Dipping
  • Injection Moulding
  • Extrusion
  • Graphical Sketch of a twin screw extruder
  • Screw Temperature Control
  • Application Principle
  • Friction free Applications
  • Clear, simple operation
  • Two sided coating of openweaving fabrics
  • Tarpaulin Coating Line
  • PVC Coated Tarpaulines
  • Properties of Vinylidene Chloride Copolymer Films
  • Properties of VDC copolymer Films made
  • From Aqueous Latices and from Solutions
  • Lamination Methods
  • Direct lamination in cleander of two PVC Sheets
  • Lamination in calender of several sheets
  • Independent Lamination and Embossing
  • Laminating and Embssing Plant
  • Lamination and embossing of three PVC or PVC/ABS sheets
  • Embossing of wall paper coated with vinyl film
  • Roller Melt Process
  • Description of the Process
  • Application Carrier Materials
  • The Roller Melt Process is suitable for Recycling
  • Processable Raw Materials
  • Advantages of the Process
  • Process of Plasticised PVC
  • Processing of PVC Pastes
  • Dipping Process
  • Slush or Rotational Moulding
  • Blown Films
  • Moulding of PVC Footwear
  • Moulding
  • Flexible (Soft Plasticized) PVC Film

RECYCLING OF PVC

  • Plastics Waste Management Hierarchy
  • Coding as an aid to separation
  • Recycling of Short Life PVC Products
  • Bottles
  • Separation by Hydrocyclones
  • New Products from Recycled PVC Bottles
  • Prospects for Chemical Recycling of PVC
  • Tecoplast Bottle Plant
  • Service Life of PVC Products
  • Recyclable Vinyl
  • PVC Bottles, Jars and Containers
  • Design Considerations
  • Physical Properties
  • Marketing Consideration
  • Safe and Recycleable
  • Lower Mold Costs


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