Technology of Food Chemicals, Pigments and Food Aroma Compounds (Hand Book)

Technology of Food Chemicals, Pigments and Food Aroma Compounds (Hand Book)
Technology of Food Chemicals, Pigments and Food Aroma Compounds (Hand Book)
Author: Dr. Himadri Panda
ISBN: 9789380772394
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The book Technology of  Food Chemicals, Pigments & Food Aroma Compounds Food colours, Biosynthesis of Food Constituents: Natural Pigments,Synthetic and Inorganic Pigments, Changes of Pigments in Anthocyanin Products,  Stability of Pigments, Vanillin Synthetic Flavoring from Spent Sulfite Liquor, Betanin (Main Pigment of Red beet), Extracts of Annatto,  Naturally Flavoured Food products, Vegetable Flavour , Flavour Enhancer, Tea Flavouring, Fish Flavour,Production of Food Aroma Compounds, Yellow Colour obtained from Turmeric in Food Products,Flavour of Cheddar Cheese, Volatile Components in Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and Thyme Leaves (Thymus vulgaris L.), Dill and Parsley Essential Oil Composition, Plant Economics of Annatto Seed Colour Extraction,  Plant Economics of Caramel Colour (Food Colour),  Plant Economics of Cold Flavoured Tea (Various Flavours), Plant Economics of Curcumin & Turmeric Oil from Turmeric, Plant Economics of Essence for Food, Plant Economics of Flavoured Milk (Sterilized), Plant Economics of Flavours Manufacturings.


FOOD COLOURS

Colouring our foods
Food colours in history
Market trends
Current regulations
Labelling of colours
Labelling of colours in the USA
Review of currently available colourants
Synthetic colours
Nature identical colours
Natural colours
Caramel colours
Recent developments in colours
Formulation
Process
Pigment sources
Additives in additives
Formulations for soft drink/beverage applications
colour formulations using ingredients from genetically modified sources
Organic colours
Colouring foodstuffs
Colouring foodstuffs
Safety assessment
Biotechnology
Future outlook
Future developments in US legislation
Novel pigment sources
Spirulina sp. contains the pigment phycocyanin
Formulation and process
Functional food ingredients
Curcumin
Anthocyanins
Carotenoids
Lycopene
Lutein
Chorophylls
Conclusions

BIOSYNTHESIS OF FOOD CONSTITUENTS: NATURAL PIGMENTS

Xanthones
Flavonoids
Chalcones and flavanones
Quinochalcones
Aurones
Miscellaneous flavonoids 
Isochromenes
Curc uminoids
Carotenoids
Carotenes
Carotenes
Xanthophylls
Apocarotenoids
Irodoids
Miscellaneous terpenoids

SYNTHETIC AND INORGANIC PIGMENTS


Inorganic
Titanium dioxide (TiO3)
Carbon black
Ferrous Gluconate
Ultramarines (ultramarine blue)
Calcium carbonate
Iron Oxides and Hydroxides 
Calcination of ferrous sulfate (coppears red iron oxide)
Precipitated red iron oxide
Red iron oxide produced from yellow iron oxide
Red iron oxide produced from black iron oxide
Penniman-Zoph or scrap process
Direct precipitation process 
Aniline process
Silver, gold, and aluminium
synthetic
General Information
Reactions in the Production of Pigments
Blends of Synthetic Colorants
Color Stability
Dye Presentation
Lakes
Hydrate formation
Laking process
Analytical techniques and the evaluation of color purity

CHANGES OF PIGMENTS IN ANTHOCYANIN PRODUCTS 

Anthocyanin pigment composition
Measurement of total anthocyanins by the pH differential method
Indices for polymeric color and browning
Measurement of color by the CIEL'a'b system
Concluding remarks

STABILITY OF PIGMENTS

Materials and methods
Analytical study
Stability studies on temperature 
Stability studies on Light 
Stability studies on pH
Results and discussion
Stability of anthocyanin from Musa acuminata bract at various parameters
Spectrophotometric measurements of color intensity
The effect of temperature onthe destruction of anthocyanin under light 
The effect of temperature on the destruction of anthocyanin under dark
The effect of pH on the stability of anthocyanin
Colours of anthocyanins in freshly made samples at pH 1.1 to 10.5
Colour variation on anthocyanins in the pH range 1.1-10.5 after 1 hour dissolution
Colour variation of anthocyanins in the pH range 1.1-10.5 during storage
Conclusion

VANILLIN:SYNTHETIC FLAVORING FROM SPENT SULFITE LIQUOR

Vanillin Isolation, Preparation
Commercial Vanillin from Lignin
Environmental Concerns


BETANIN (MAIN PIGMENT OF RED BEET)

Materials and methods 
Chemicals
Preparation of betanin
Results and Discussion


EXTRACTS OF ANNATTO

Description
Manufacturing
Detailed description
Mechanical Abrasion
Extraction with refined vegetable oil
Extraction with dilute aqueous potassium or sodium hydroxide
Solvent Extraction
Composition of the Food Additive 
Pigment Fraction
Oil Soluble Annatto
Water Soluble Annatto
Emulsified Annatto
NonPigment Fraction (Mass Balance Studies)
Possible impurities (including degradation products)
Analytical methods
Thin Layer Chromatography
High Performance Liquid Chromatography
Method of Assy
Functional use
Technological function
Food categories and use levels
Reactions and fate in foods

NATURALLY FLAVOURED FOOD PRODUCTS

VEGETABLE FLAVOUR

Materials
Onion and Garlic Flavour
Sensory Test
Chicken Bouillon
Beef Noodle Seasoning
Sensory Test Garlic Flavour 
Sensory Test Onion Flavour

FLAVOUR ENHANCER

Example 1 and Comparative Experiment 1
Fruit Preparation
Example 2 and  Comparative Experiment 2 Fruit  Yoghurt 
Example 3:Cola 
Example 4 and Comparative Experiment 3 White  Bread

TEA FLAVOURING 

Example 1
Example 2

FISH  FLAVOUR 

Example 1
Extrusion Experiment with Compositions Comprising Docosahexaenoic Acid 

PRODUCTION OF FOOD AROMA COMPOUNDS 

Plant Cell Cultures
Microbial Cultures
Diacetyl
Lactones
Esters
Pyrazines
Terpenes
Alcohols
Vanillin
Benzaldehyde
Methyl ketone
Enzyme Catalysed Reactions
Lipolytic enzymes
Proteases
Glucosidases
Other enzymes
Solid State Fermentation
Conclusions

YELLOW COLOUR OBTAINED FROM TURMERIC IN FOOD PRODUCTS 

Materials and Methods
Development of liquid and crystal colour
Product Development
Consumer acceptability assessment
Selection of families for product development
Assessment of market potential 
Results and Discussion 
Products prepared with WSLF
Products prepared using FSCP
Consumer acceptability
Information regarding the knowledge of food colours by consumers 
Assessment  of turmeric colour in food products prepared by the consumers 
Organoleptic evaluation of food products prepared by consumers

FLAVOUR OF CHEDDAR CHEESE

Manufacture of Cheddar Cheese
Biochemical reactions during manufacture and ripening of cheddar cheese
Contribution of glycolysis and related reactions to cheddar cheese flavour
Metabolism of lactose and lactic acid 
Citrate metabolism in cheddar cheese
Contribution of lipolysis and related reactions to cheddarflavor
Metabolism of fatty acids 
Contribution of proteolysis and related reactions to cheddar flavour 
Proteolysis of milk proteins in cheddar cheese 
Metabolism of amino acids 

VOLATILE COMPONENTS  IN BASIL (OCIMUM BASILICUM l.) AND THYME LEAVES (THYMUS VULGARIS L.)

Materials and methods
Materials
Chemicals
Isolation of aroma chemicals by steam distillation under reduced pressure
Identification and quantification of aroma chemicals in the extracts from basil and thyme leaves
Instrumental analysis
Results and discussion
Volatile composition
Antioxidant activities of aroma chemicals
Conclusion

DILL AND PARSLEY ESSENTIAL OIL COMPOSITION

Materials and Methods
Results and Discussion
Conclusions

PLANT ECONOMICS OF ANNATTO SEED COLOUR EXTRACTION

Plant & Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/Annum


PLANT ECONOMICS OF CARAMEL COLOUR (FOOD COLOUR)

Plant & Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/Annum

PLANT ECONOMICS OF COLD FLAVOURED TEA (VARIOUS FLAVOURS)

Plant & Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/Annum


PLANT ECONOMICS OF CURCUMIN & TURMERIC OIL FROM TURMERIC

Plant & Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/Annum


PLANT ECONOMICS OF ESSENCE FOR FOOD 

Plant & Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/Annum

PLANT ECONOMICS OF FLAVOURED MILK (STERILIZED)

Plant & Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/Annum


PLANT ECONOMICS OF FLAVOURS MANUFACTURINGS

Plant & Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/Annum

PLANT ECONOMICS OF FOOD COLOURS

Plant & Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/Annum

PLANT ECONOMICS OF LIQUED FLAVOUR TO POWDER FORM

Plant & Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/Annum

PLANT ECONOMICS OF VANILLA CULTIVATION AND EXTRACTION/PROCESSING

Plant & Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/Annum

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