HAND BOOK OF LUBRICANTS, GREASES AND PETROCHEMICALS TECHNOLOGY (E-BOOK)

HAND BOOK OF LUBRICANTS, GREASES AND PETROCHEMICALS TECHNOLOGY (E-BOOK)
Author: EIRI Books
ISBN: 9788189765217
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The Book Cover Product Introduction, Lubricating Base Stocks, Oxidative Degradation and Stabilisation of Mineral Oil Based Lubricants,  Lubricating Oils Classification, Synthetic Fluids, Specialty Oils,  Miscellaneous Additives and Vegetable Oils , Various Formulations of Lubricants and Grease,  Asphalt Technology, Speciality Products,  Treatment of Lubes, The Formulation of Automotive Lubricant, Industrial Lubricants, Lubricating Greases,  Manufacture of Lubricating Greases,  Lubricant and Their Environmental Impact, Jatropha (Bio Diesel) Cultivation & Extraction, Crude Oil Bleaching for Petroleum Jelly, Soluble Cutting Oil, Emulsifiers for Cutting Oils,  Petroleum Jelly, Toluene and SBP From Crude Naphtha, White Oil from Kerosene Oil, Transformer Oil, Biodiesel Project Report. 

 


HAND BOOK OF LUBRICANTS, GREASES AND PETROCHEMICALS TECHNOLOGY


PRODUCT INTRODUCTION


LUBRICATING BASE STOCKS



Introduction
Classification
Composition and properties of Lubricating oil fractions
Production of lub stocks
Deasphalting
Solvent refining
Dewaxing
Decolourizing
Yield and properties of lubricating oil base stocks
Yield
Properties
Typical properties of Base stocks from Aghajari  Crude
Development in process ing in India

OXIDATIVE DEGRADATION AND STABILISATION OF MINERAL OIL BASED LUBRICANTS

 Introduction
Autoxidation of hydrocarbons
Oxidation of hydrocarbons at low temperature
Initiation of the radical chain reaction
Propagation of the radical chain reaction
Chain branching
Termination of the radical chain reaction
Oxidation of hydrocarbons at high temperature
Secondary oxidation phase
Metal catalysed autooxidation of hydrocarbons
Oxidation stability of base oils
Inhibition of oxidation degradation of lubricants
Radical scavengers
Sterically hindered phenols
Reaction mechanism
Aromatic amines
Reaction mechanism
Organocopper antioxidants
Organosulfur Compounds
Zinc dialky dithicarbamates
Multifunctional additives
Zinc dithiophosphates
organomolybdenum compounds
phenates and salicylates
sulfur nitrogen and sulfur/phshours compounds
Synergism between antioxidants
Application of antioxidants
Anti wear hydraulic fluids
Future antioxidant technology
Antiodidants for industrial lubricants
Antioxidants for engine oils

LUBRICATING OILS CLASSIFICATION


Introduction
Classification
Automotive oils
Crankcase Oils
Axle and Transmission oils
Automatic Transmission Oils
Industrial lubricating oils
Machine and engine oils
Steam Cylinder oils
Steam turbine oils
Diesel Engine Oils
Compressor oils
Spindle Oils
Gear oils
Hydraulic oils
Circulating oils
Electric Motor Bearing Oils
Wire Rope Lubricants
Speciality oils
Insulating oils
Transformer oils
Switchgear oils
Cable oils
Capicitor oils
White oils
Medicinal white oils
Technical white oils
Instrument oils
Spray oils
Plant spray oils
Dust allaying oils
Textile oils
Rubber oils
Vacuum pump oils
Refrigerator oils
Metal working oils
Cutting oils
Soluble cutting oils
Straight cutting oils
Metal forming oils
Rollingoils
Drawing oils
Heat treatment oils
Quenching oils
Tempering oils

SYNTHETIC FLUIDS

Introduction
Polyalphaolefins
Properties and applications
Table base fluid comparisons
Alkylated aromatics
Introduction
Production and general propertes
Applications
Polybutenes
Introduction
Markets
Properties
Lubricant applications
Synthetic esters
Introduction
Ester types
Manufacture of esters
Physicochemical properties  of ester lubricant
Hydrolytic stability
Environmental aspects
Polyalkylene glycols
Introduction
Key properties
applications
Phosphate esters
Introduction

SPECIALITY OILS

Introduction
Acid Treatment
Reaction and purpose
Reaction Temperature
Acid dosage
Process of manufacturing
Neutralization and washing
Sludge disposal/pollution control
Recovery of sulphonates
Clay treatment and filtration
Purpose and action
Absorbents
Percolation filtration process
Hydrotreating process
Base stocks
Madras refineries Ltd.
Lube India Ltd.

MISCELLANEOUS ADDITIVES AND VEGETABLE OILS

Friction modifier
Introducton
Friction and lubricating regimes
Friction modifier mechanisms
Chemical aspect of friction modifiers
Antagonisms between friction modifers and other additives
Lubricity additives in Diesel fuel
Pour point depressants
Low temperature operations
Mechanism of pour point depressants
Demulsifiers and antifoams
Introduction
Emulsion stabilisation
Demulsification
Demulsifiers
Foam stability
Antifoams
Foam studies
Corrosion inhibitors
The process of corrosionCorrosion inhibitors
Corrosion testing
Vegetable oils
Chemistry and physical properties
Extraction and processing
Uses

VARIOUS FORMULATIONS OF LUBRICANTS AND GREASE

Textile Lubricants
Lubrication for Wool
Lubricant for Worsted Yarn
Textile Lubricant for Spinning Jute, etc.
Rope Lubricant
Some Important Formula
U.S. Patent
Preparation of complex Soap Lead base Greases
Importance of Soap Salt Complexes, and their Characteristics
General claims for Soap Salt Complexes for Lubricating Greases
Some Methods for Forming Soap Salt Complexes
Complex Aluminium Soap Lubricating Greases
Complex Barium Soap Lubricating Greases
Complex Calcium Soap Lubricant
Another Example is:
Complex Lithium Soap Salt Lubricating Greases
Complex Strontium Soap Lubricating Greases

ASPHALT TECHNOLOGY

Source of Asphalt (Bitumen)
Chemical Structure of Asphalt
Action of Heat on Asphalt
Types of Asphalts
Air Blowing of Bitumen
Upgradation of Heavy Crudes

SPECIALTY PRODUCTS

Industrial Grease
Manufacture of Calcium Grease
Liquid Paraffin
Production of Paraffins
Petroleum Jellys

TREATMENT OF LUBES

Sulfuric Acid Treatment
Clay  Treatment
Solvent Treatment
Duo-sol (Selecto)
About Extraction

THE FORMULATION OF AUTOMOTIVE LUBRICANT

Introduction
Why there are so many  type of lubricant
Multifunctional Lubricants

INDUSTRIAL LUBRICANTS

Introduction
General aspects of industrial lubricants
Classification of industrial lubricants

LUBRICATING GREASES

Introduction
Grease Vs oil
Advantage
Disadvantage
The constituents of grease
Petroleum oils
Thickeners
Soap gelling agents
Non soaps gelling agents
Synthetic fluids
Additives
Fillers
Classification of greases
Sodium soap greases
Calcium Soap Grease
Lithium soap greases
Aluminium soap greases
Other greases
Mixed soap grease
Silica Based Greases
Clay based  greases
Carbon Black greases
Phthalocyanines Based greases
Indanthrene bases greases
Sodium octadecy terephthalamate bases greases
Aryl substituted urea based greases
Diamidodicarbonyl based greases
Synthetic greases
Classification according to use
Structure of grases
Soap gelling agent
Properties of greases
Viscosity of the oil
Loss on evaporation
Oxidation stability
Heat stability
Temperature limits of operation
Mechanical properties
Operating life

MANUFACTURE OF LUBRICATING GREASES

Introduction
Soap base greases
Conventional method
Calcium soap greases
Manufacture of anhydrous grease
Sodium greases
Mixed soap greases
Manufacture of aluminium and lithium base greases
Aluminium base greases
Lithium base greases
Manufacture of cold sett greases
Non soap base greases

LUBRICANT AND THEIR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

Introduction
Used industrial lubricants
Used automotive lubricant
Treatment of collected lubricant
Production of fuel oil blending component
Reclamation of lubricating oils
Production of re-refined lubricant base oils
Acid/clay treatment
Solvent extraction
Health and safety aspects of re-refined oil
Environmental consideration of waste lubricant
Biodegradation tests of oils
Current status and applicability
Future trends

JATROPHA (BIO DIESEL) CULTIVATION & EXTRACTION

Process of Manufacture
Plant Economics of Jatropha (Bio-Disel) Cultivation & Extraction


CRUDE OIL BLEACHING FOR PETROLEUM JELLY

Techniquies of Manufacturing Process
Acid  Treatment
Reaction and Purpose
Temperature
Plant Economics f Crude oil Bleaching of Petroleum Jelly
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/Anum

SOLUBLE CUTTING OIL

Process Flow Diagram for the Manufacture  of Soluble Cutting Oil
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total working capital/month
Total capital investment
Turn over/annum

EMULSIFIERS FOR CUTTING OILS

Formulation of Cutting Oil Emulsifier base
Plant Economics of Emulsifier for Cutting Oil
Fixed Capital
Total Working Capital Month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/Annum

PETROLEUM JELLY

Process of Manufacture
Plant Economics of Petroleum Jelly
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investment
Turn over/Annum

TOLUENE AND SBP FROM CRUDE NAPHTHA

Plant Economics of Toluene and SBP from Crude Naphtha
Raw Materials

WHITE OIL FROM KEROSENE OIL

Plant Economics of White Oil from Kerosene Oil
Total Capital Investment
Turn over/Annum

TRANSFORMER OIL

Plant Economics of Transformer Oil
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total working capital/month
Total capital investment
Turn Over/Annum

BIODIESEL PROJECT REPORT

Product Description and Uses
Market Survey and Demand Supply Position
Manufacturing process Description
Brief Process Descrption
Biodiesel Process in Detail
Ingredients
Procedure
Production of Biodiesel using Jatropha as Feedstock
Quantity of Methanol to be used
Treatment of Liquid Effluents
Power Requirement
Utilities Specifications
Marment and Selling Arrangements
Production capacity and Target
Cost of project and Means of Finance
Land
Building
cost of utilities

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