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Technology of Textile Chemicals with Formulations (hand book)

Technology of Textile Chemicals with Formulations (hand book)
Author: Dr. Himadri Panda
ISBN: 9789380772586
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The book covers  Technology of Fabric Manufacture, Agents for Textile Printing Binders, Scouring, Surfactants, Surface Active Compounds as Basic Components, Thickening Agent for Textile Material, Thickening Agent Based on Tamarind Seed Gum, Aloe Vera Gel based Thickening Agent, Bleaching, Bleaching of Wool, Laccases for Denim Bleaching, Cationic Fixing Agents, Treatment of Textile Wastewater, Optical brighteners,  Plant Fibres for Textiles Extraction of Plant Dyes, Dyeing with Disperse Dyes, Wool Dyeing and Silk Fibres,  Morphology of Wool, Conductive Polyelectrolytes, Fibres Conductance Analysis, Dependence of Conformational State of Polyelectrolyte on pH, Plant Economics of Detergent Paste (Textile Grade), Plant Economics of Dispersant for Textiles, List of Formulations of Printing Ink,  Properties and Application of the Formulations, Anti Crease Formulations Auxiliary for Textile Wet Finishing Formulation, Ant Microbial and Anti Crease Formulation, Crease and wrinkle proofing cellulosic textile formulation, Formulation for Diquaternary Ammonium Salts as Textile Finishing Agents, Garments Dyeing Process and Fabric Dyeing Process Formulations.
TECHNOLOGY OF TEXTILE CHEMICALS WITH FORMULATION


TECHNOLOGY OF FABRIC MANUFACTURE

Warp Size and Desizing
Sources of Sizing Compounds
Starch
Starches Used as Textile size
Chemical Constitution
Starch Solutions
Retrograding
Modified Starch
Thin Boiling Starch
Dextrin
British Gum
Oxidized Starch
Starch Ethers
Desizing Starch
Enzyme Desizing
Amylase
Effect of Temperature, pH and Electrolytes on Enzymatic Desizing
Desizing with Acids
Desizing with Oxidizing Agents
Test for Starch
Typical Procedures
Synthesis
Advantages and Disadvantages over starch
Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA)
Synthesis of Polyvinyl Alcohol
Polymerization of Vinyl Acetate
Hydrolysis to Polyvinyl Alcohol
Manufacturing Process
Solution Properties
Grades of PVA Available as Textile Size
Film Properties
Desizing PVA
Effect of heat Setting on Removal of PVA
Dehydration of PVA
Size Recovery
Acrylic Sizes
Polyacrylic Acid
Synthesis of Polyacrylic Acid
Desizing Polyacrylic Acid
Acrylic Acid Co-Polymers
Effect of heat Setting on Removal
Anhydride Formation
Polyester Resin Sizes
Other Additives

AGENTS FOR TEXTILE PRINTING BINDERS

Acrylate binder
Polyurethane binder
Thickener solution
Emulsifier L
Emulsifier VA
Emulsifier WN
Acrylic acid/acrylamide copolymer dispersion
Acramin Navyblue FBC
Polyisocyanate
Comparison 1: Oil-in-water emulsion print
Testing method
Brush washing test
Examples
Printing from aqueous dispersion


SCOURING

Composition of Natural Fibers
Chemistry of Oils, Fats and Waxes
Fats
Triglycerides
Hydrolysis of Triglycerides
Acid Hydrolysis
Saponification
Fatty Acids
Sources
Vegetable Sources
Saturated Fatty  Acids
Castor Oil
Coconut Oil
Corn Oil
Cottonseed Oil
Olive Oil
Palm Oil
Linseed Oil
Tall Oil
Japan Wax
Animal Sources
Tallow
Lard
Whale Oil
Chemical Wax
Fatty Alcohols
Sources of Fatty Alcohols
Mineral Wax
Paraffin
Microcrystalline Wax
Synthetic Wax
Fatty Acids
Fatty Alcohols
Polyethylene Glycols
PEG Esters
Solvent Scouring
Merits and Demerits
Common Solvents
Solvent Properties
Non-flammable Solvents
Aqueous Scouring
Typical Formulation for Scouring Specific Fibers
Cotton
Batch Scouring Procedure
Continuous Scouring Procedure
Wool Raw Stock Scouring
Silk
Blends
Test for Effective Scouring
AATCC Test Method Number 79
Water as a Raw Material
Water Softening
Lime Soda Process
Cation Exchange
Sequestration or Chelation
Classes of Sequestering Agents
Polyphosphates
Formation of Polyphosphates
Important Polyphosphates
Advantages of Inorganic Phosphates
Organophosphonic Acids
Advantages and Disadvantages
Aminocarboxylic Acids
Advantages and Disadvantages
Hydroxycarboxylic Acids
Advantages and Disadvantages
Formation of Complexes
Formation Constant

SURFACTANTS

What do they do?
How do they work?
Penetrating and wetting fabric
Loosening and emulsifying soils
Examples
Builders
What do they do?
How do they work?
Examples
Alkalis
What do they do?
How do they work?
Examples
Anti redeposition agents
What do they do?
How do they work?
Examples
Enzymes
How do they work?
Stain removal
Colour and fabric care
Examples
Active Oxygen bleaches
What do they do?
How do they work?
Examples
Antimicrobial Agents
What do they do?
How do they work?
Examples
Fabric Softeners
What do they do?
How do they work?
Optical Brighteners
What do they do?
How do they work?
Examples
Preservatives
What do they do?
How do they work?
Examples
Hydrotropes
What do they do?
How do they work?
Examples
Processing Aids
What do they do?
How do they work?
Foam Regulators
What do they do?
Examples
Corrosion Inhibitors
What do they do?
How do they  work?
Examples
Physical Chemistry of Surfactant Solutions
Surface Tension
Critical Micelle Concentration
Classification of Surfactants
By Use
Wetting Agents
Detergents
Emulsifying Agents
Dispersing Agents
By Ionic Charge
Nonionic Surfactants
Ethoxylates
Water Solubility of Ethoxylated Nonylphenol
Cloud Point
Hydrophilic Lyophilic Balance (HLB)
Structure of Ethoxylated Nonylphenol
Effect of Ethylene Oxide on Solubility Balance
Performance
A Wetting Times
Detergency
Anionic Surfactans
Chemical Classification of Anionic Surfactants
Cationic

SURFACE-ACTIVE COMPOUNDS AS BASIC COMPONENTS

Anionic Surfactants
Catonic Surfactants
Zwitterionic (Amphoteric) Surfactants
Nonionic Surfactants
Technology of Surface-active compounds
Examples
Block polymer (component (a)
Alkylphenol/aldehyde resin (component (b)
Product according to the method

THICKENING AGENT FOR TEXTILE MATERIAL

Preparation of Soybean Hemicellulose
Examples
Printing Test

THICKENING AGENT BASED ON TAMARIND SEED GUM

Technology
Materials
Manufacturng of tamarind kernel powder
Determination of chemical composition
Preparation of thickening agent
Preparation of printing pastes
Printing procedure
Colour strength and fastness properties
Results and discussion
Characterization of tamarind kernel powder
Effect of disperse printing on colour value
Effect of printing on fastness properties
Effect of printing on fastness properties

ALOE VERA GEL BASED THICKENING AGENT

Experimental
Materials
Substrates
Thickening Agents
Dyes
Auxiliaries and chemicals
Methods
Printing pastes
Printing procedure
Testing
Results and discussion
Thickener concentration
Effect of urea concentration
Citric acid concentration
Super heated steam flxation temperature
Steam fixation time
Effect of storage time
Effect of type of dyestuff and thickening agent
Effect of the type of substrate

BLEACHING

Chemistry of Bleaching with Green Oxidation
Oxidation
Peroxide Activator Catalysis
Motivation
Challenges for Peroxide Bleaching
Applications
Common Bleaching Agents
Sodium Hypochlorite
Bleaching Mechanism
Effect of pH
Effect of Time and Temperature
Effect of Metals
Antichlor
Uses
Typical batch procedure
Hydrogen peroxide
Mechanism
Effect of pH
Effect of Time and Temperature
Stabilizers
Sodium Silicates
Organic Stabilizers
Phosphates
Uses
Bleaching Procedures
Sodium Chlorite (NaClO2)
Effect of pH
Bleaching Mechanism
Effect of Temperature
Other Oxidative Bleaches
Persulfates
Perborates and Percarbonates
Peracetic Acid
Reductive bleaches
Sulfur Dioxide
Sodium Dithionate (Sodium Hydrosulfite)
Test for Degree of Bleaching
Whiteness
Fluidity

BLEACHING OF WOOL

Experimental
Materials
Procedures
Scouring
Hydrogen peroxide bleaching
Sodium borohydride bleaching
Testing and  measurements
Result and Discussion
Hydrogen peroxide bleachng results
Effect of SBH concentration on bleaching of wool
Effect of SBS concentration on bleaching of wool
Effect of bleaching temperature on whiteness and alkali solubility
Effect of bleaching pH on whiteness and alkali solubility
Effect of bleaching time on whiteness and alkali solubility
Yellowing tendency of wool after bleaching
Denim bleach effect
Tradition chemical process
Limitations
Enzymatic bleaching effect on denim

LACCASES FOR DENIM BLEACHING

Laccases in Denim Bleaching

CATIONIC FIXING AGENTS

Experimental
Fabric
Dyes
Cationic Fixing Agents
Detergents
Dyeing
Direct dyeing of Cotton samples
Reactive Dyeing of Cotton Samples
Wash Fastness Testing
Color Measurement
Visual Assessment
Discussion about technology
Colorant Loss
Comparison of Detergents
Comparison of Cationic Materials
Mechanism

TREATMENT OF TEXTILE WASTEWATER

Textile Wastewater Characteristics
Advanced Oxidation process (AOPS)
Ultraviolet Lamp
Ozone
O3/UVH2O2/UV
O3/H2O2 (Peroxone)
O2/H2O2/UV

OPTICAL BRIGHTENERS

Stilbene Type OBA
Chemistry of optical brighteners and uses in textile industries
History of OBA
Direct(Substantive) Brightner
Disperse Brightner
Optical Brightners and its mechanism
Properties
Whitness and Brightness
Light Fastness
Washing Fastness
Metameric Effect of OBA
Other processes
Mercerizing

PLANT FIBRES FOR TEXTILES

Plant fibres
Morphology of  lignocellulosic fibres
Fibre structure
Conventional plant fibres
Seed fibres
Cotton
Kapok
Bast fibres
Flax 224
Jute225
Hemp
Ramie
Kenaf
Leaf fibres
Sizal
Abaca
Henequen
Non-conventional plant fibres
Fibres from corn stover
Wheat straw fibres
Fibres from hop stems
Banana, sugarcane bagasse and sponge gourd fibers
Bamboo fibres
Quinoa fibres
Grass fibres
Alfa or esparto fibres
Sea grass-Zostera marina
Applications of non conventional cellulose fibres

EXTRACTION OF PLANT DYES

Colour in textiles
Dyes
Natural dyes
Plant dyes
Animal dyes
Synthetic dyes
Characteristics of natural dyes
Mordants
Extraction of Dyes from Identified Plants
Materials and methods used for the dye extraction
Materials
Method

DYEING WITH DISPERSE DYES

Disperse dyes
Classification
Azo disperse dyes
Anthraquinone disperse dyes
Other disperse dye classes
Constitution and fastness properties
Fastness to wet treatment
Fastness to dry heat
Fastness to light
Hydrophobic fibres
Polyester fibres
Properties of polyester fibres
Physical properties
Chemical properties
Acetate fibres
Properties of acetate fibres
Physical properties
Chemical properties
Disperse dyeing
Basic principle
The effects of variations in disperse dyeing
Crystal form of the disperse dyes
Dispersing agent
Particle size in dispersion of the dyes
pH of dyebath
Substantivity of disperse dyes
Temperature
Fibre fineness
Recent requirements in disperse dyeing technology
Main methods of disperse dyeing
Carrier dyeing
High temperature dyeing
Adsorption phase
Diffusion phase
Cleaning phase
Thermosol process
Dyeing Polyester with Disperse Dyes
Immersion dyeing polyester
Novel forms of disperse dyes
Crayons
Stamp pad Ink

WOOL DYEING AND SILK FIBRES

Background
Fibres
Comparing Wool and Silk
Morphology of Wool
Micro Structure of Wool
Macro Structure of Wool
Morphology of Silk
Comparison Between Spider Silk and Silk from Silkworm

CONDUCTIVE POLYELECTROLYTES

Electrical Properties
Optical Properties
Absorption and Emission
Relationship Between Absorption Spectrum and Electrical Conductivity
Wool and Silk Dyeing
Dyeing Dependence on Morphology of Fibre
Wool Scouring
Silk Degumming
Industrial Acid Dyeing of Wool
Industrial Acid Dyeing of Silk
Auxiliaries Use for Industrial Acid Dyeing
Continuous and Exhaust Dyeing Method
Dyeing of Wool and Silk Fibre with PEDOT-S
Experimental
Materials and Chemicals
Materials
Chemicals
Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) Non ionic detergent (lavolan DSU)
Fibres and Yarns
Methods
Scouring of Wool
Degumming of Silk
dyeing Method
Conductive Polymer combined with Silk fibers for Biomedical Electrodes

FIBRES CONDUCTANCE ANALYSIS

pH Determination
Optical Microscopy
Determination of Mechanical properties
Results and Discussion
Optical Microscopy
Mechanical Properties
Electrical Conductivity of dyed Silk and Wool Fibres and Yarns
Error Estimation
Proposed Model of Supramolecular Assembly of PEDOT-S onto  wol and Silk at Very Low pH

DEPENDENCE OF CONFORMATIONAL STATE OF POLYELECTROLYTE ON PH

pH of the Bath in Acid Dyeing
Conformational States of Macromolecules at Different pH
Supra Molecular Reaction of PEDOT-S and Protein Fibres

PLANT ECONOMICS OF DETERGENT PASTE (TEXTILE GRADE)

Formulation of Detergent Paste (Textile Grade)
40% Detergent Paste
20% Detergent Paste
Plant and machinery
Fixed capital
Raw materials
Total working capital/month
Total capital Investment
Turn Over/Annum

PLANT ECONOMICS OF DISPERSANT FOR TEXTILES

Process of manufacturing
Ethoxylation
Reactor
Textile dispersant (fatty acid based) dispersol)
Fatty Alcohol Polyethylene Oxide Condensate
Condensate
Formulations
Procedures (as per Formulation)
Plant economics
Plant & Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total working capital/month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/Annum

LIST OF FORMULATIONS OF PRINTING INK

Lemon Yellow Printing Ink
Jobbing Black Ink
Colour Ink (Blue)
Super Gloss Ink (Blue)
Medium Quality Prints (Blue)
Cheap Quality Black Ink

PROPERTIES AND APPLICATION OF THE FORMULATIONS

Examples
Preparation of the seed latex
Preparation of the DAAM latex(WEB011)
Synthesis of a control binder emulsion Preparation of the DAAM free latex (WEBM016)

ANTI CREASE FORMULATIONS

Examples
Application Examples

AUXILIARY FOR TEXTILE WET FINISHING FORMULATIN

ANTI MICROBIAL AND ANTI CREASE FORMULATION


Examples
Evaluation of fabric properties
Tearing strength
Crease recovery
Advantages

CREASE AND WRINKLE PROOFING CELLULOSIC TEXTILE FORMULATION

Examples

FORMULATION FOR DIQUATERNARY AMMONIUM SALTS AS TEXTILE FINISHING AGENTS

Procedures for the preparation of dialkylaminoalkylbehenic acid amides or esters
Application examples

GARMENTS DYEING PROCESS AND FABRIC DYEING PROCESS FORMULATIONS

Work procedure
Garments dyeing process with vat dyes
Typical formula
Soaping
 

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