hard anodizing industry with cookwares and kitchenwares

hard anodizing industry with cookwares and kitchenwares
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Additional Details

HARD ANODIZING INDUSTRY WITH COOKWARES AND KITCHENWARES
 [CODE NO.3121 ]  



Anodizing is an electrolytic passivation process used to increase the thickness of the natural oxide layer on the surface of metal parts. The process is called
anodizing because the part to be treated forms the anode electrode of an electrical circuit.

Anodizing increases corrosion resistance and wear resistance, and provides better adhesion for paint primers and glues than bare metal. Anodic films can also be used for a number of cosmetic effects, either with thick porous coatings that can absorb dyes or with thin transparent coatings that add interference effects to reflected light. Anodizing is also used to prevent galling of threaded components and to make dielectric films for electrolytic capacitors. Anodic films are most commonly applied to protect aluminium alloys, although processes also exist for titanium, zinc, magnesium, niobium, and tantalum. This process is not a useful treatment for iron or carbon steel because these metals exfoliate when oxidised; i.e. the iron oxide (also known as rust) flakes off, constantly exposing the underlying metal to corrosion.

Anodising changes the microscopic texture of the surface and changes the crystalstructure of the metal near the surface. Thick coatings are normally porous, so a sealing process is often needed to achieve corrosion resistance. Anodised aluminium surfaces, for example, are harder than aluminium but have low to moderate wear resistance that can be improved with increasing thickness or by applying suitable sealing substances. Anodic films are generally much stronger and more adherent than most types of paint and metal plating, but also more brittle. This makes them less likely to crack and peel from aging and wear, but more susceptible to cracking from thermal stress.

Preceding the anodizing process, wrought alloys are cleaned in either a hot soakcleaner or in a solvent bath and may be etched in sodium hydroxide (normally with added sodium gluconate), ammonium bifluoride or brightened in a mix of acids. Cast alloys are normally best just cleaned due to the presence of

intermetallic substances unless they are a high purity alloy such as LM0.

The anodised aluminium layer is grown by passing a direct current through an electrolytic solution, with the aluminium object serving as the anode (the positive electrode). The current releases hydrogen at the cathode (the negative build-up of aluminium oxide. Alternating current and pulsed current is also possible but rarely used. The voltage required by various solutions may range from 1 to 300 V DC, although most fall in the range of 15 to 21 V. Higher voltages are typically required for thicker coatings formed in sulphuric and organic acid. The anodising current varies with the area of aluminium being anodised, and typically ranges from 0.3 to 3 amperes of current per square decimetre (20 to 200 mA/in²).

Aluminium anodising is usually performed in an acid solution which slowly dissolves the aluminium oxide. The acid action is balanced with the oxidation rate to form a coating with nanopores, 10-150 nm in diameter. These pores are what allow the electrolyte solution and current to reach the aluminium substrate and continue growing the coating to greater thickness beyond what is produced by autopassivation. However, these same pores will later permit air or water to reach the substrate and initiate corrosion if not sealed. They are often filled with coloured dyes and/or corrosion inhibitors before sealing.

Because the dye is only superficial, the underlying oxide may continue to provide corrosion protection even if minor wear and scratches may break through the dyed layer.

The most widely used anodising specification, MIL-A-8625, defines three types of aluminium anodising. Type I is Chromic Acid Anodising, Type II is Sulphuric Acid Anodising and Type III is sulphuric acid hard coat anodizing


COST ESTIMATION

Plant  Capacity                                :       10000.00 SQ.FT/day
Land & Building (2000 Sq.Mtr)    :    Rs. 5.44  Cr
Plant & Machinery                          :    Rs. 3.38  Cr
Working Capital for 2 Month        :    Rs. 63.11 Lacs
Total Capital Investment               :    Rs. 9.78  Cr
Rate of Return                                :    31%
Break Even Point                           :    53%



INTRODUCTION                                    
TYPES OF ANODISING                                
TYPE-I(CHROMIC ACID ANODISING)                            
SPECIFICATION                                    
CONSIDERATIONS FOR HARD ANODISING                        
MATERIALS:                                    
PROPERTIES:                                    
GENERATE CLEAR CRYSTALLINE COATINGS                        
INCREASE OF SURFACE HARDNESS AND ABRASION RESISTANCE        
INCREASE CORROSION RESISTANCE                            
BENEFITS                                    
ADVANTAGES                                    
USES AND APPLICATIONS                                
B.I.S SPECIFICATION                                
MARKET SURVEY                                    
COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES                                
CHALLENGES                                    
FUTURE GROWTH OF KITCHENWARE PRODUCTS                    
OVERVIEW OF INDIAN KITCHENWARE INDUSTRY                    
OVERVIEW OF METAL FINISHING AND KITCHENWARE INDUSTRY (GLOBAL)    
EXPORT DATA OF KITCHENWARE                            
EXPORT OF KITCHENWARE (%AGE)                            
EXPORT DESTINATION OF KITCHENWARE                        
PRESENT MANUFACTURERS AND SUPPLIERS OF KITCHENWARE & COOKWARE                    
SWOT ANALYSIS                                            
PROCESS FLOW CHART                                    
PROCESS OF HARD ANODISING                                
SURFACE PREPARATION                                    
CHEMICAL CLEANING                                        
THERE ARE TWO METHODS OF CHEMICAL ETCHING                
ELECTROPOLISHING                                        
CHEMICAL POLISHING                                        
HARD ANODISING                                        
RINSING                                                
PLANT LAYOUT                                            
SUPPLIERS OF RAW MATERIALS                                
HARD ANODIZING                                        
CAUSTIC SODA                                            
HYDROCHLORIC ACID                                        
DEGREASING CHEMICALS                                    
PACKING MATERIALS                                        
SUPPLIERS OF PLANT AND MACHINERIES                        
HARD ANODISING PLANT                                    
BENCH POLISHING MACHINE                                
EOT CRANES                                            
DG SETS                                                
POWER TRANSFORMERS                                    
COOLING TOWER                                            
AIR POLLUTION CONTROL EQUIPMENTS                            
AIR CONDITIONING EQUIPMENTS                                
AIR COMPRESSOR                                        
PLATEFORM WEIGHING MACHINE                                
MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENTS                            
FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENTS                                
SUBMERSIBLE WATER PUMP                                    
                                           

APPENDIX – A:

 1.      COST OF PLANT ECONOMICS      
 2.      LAND & BUILDING                                      
 3.      PLANT AND MACHINERY                                  
 4.      FIXED CAPITAL INVESTMENT                             
 5.      RAW MATERIAL                                         
 6.      SALARY AND WAGES                                     
 7.      UTILITIES AND OVERHEADS                              
 8.      TOTAL WORKING CAPITAL                                
 9.      COST OF PRODUCTION                                   
10.      PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS                               
11.      BREAK EVEN POINT                                     
12.      RESOURCES OF FINANCE                           
13.      INTEREST CHART                                       
14.      DEPRECIATION CHART                                   
15.      CASH FLOW STATEMENT                                   
16.      PROJECTED BALANCE SHEET      

 

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