complete book on banana cultivation, dehydration, ripening, processing, products and packaging technology (hand book)

complete book on banana cultivation, dehydration, ripening, processing, products and packaging technology (hand book)
complete book on banana cultivation, dehydration, ripening, processing, products and packaging technology (hand book)
Author: EIRI Books
ISBN: 9789380772219
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Banana

  • Introduction
  • World scenario .
  • Major producing states
  • Good Agricultural Practices (GAP)
  • Description of commercial banana varieties
  • Arrival pattern in market
  • Concentrated pockets
  • Criteria and description of grades
  • Harvesting season of crop in leading states
  • Catchment areas of market
  • Provisions concerning sizing
  • Packaging and its details
  • For export
  • For domestic market
  • Distribution of produce from primary to terminal market
  • Export and export potential
  • Domestic strength for exports
  • Documents required for exports Chain of events (from packhouse up to shipment)


Cultivation of Bananas

  • Introduction
  • Botany
  • Varieties and countries of origin
  • Uses and Contents .
  • Aspects of plant cultivation
  • Site requirements
  • Seeds and seedlings .
  • Methods of planting
  • Diversification Strategies
  • Three examples:
  • Nutrients and organic fertilisation management
  • Nutrient requirements
  • Organic fertilisation strategies
  • Biological methods of plant protection
  • Diseases
  • Pests
  • Monitoring and Maintenance
  • Crop Establishment
  • Crop Production
  • Harvesting and postharvest treatment
  • Harvesting
  • Preparation, transport and storage
  • Controlled ripening .
  • Product specifications and quality standards .
  • Processing
  • Handling
  • Packaging and storage.
  • Packaging
  • Storage


Banana and its Bye-products

  • Introduction
  • Biological Evolution and Nomenclature of Banana Plant
  • Banana Fruit
  • Moisture Content
  • Carbohydrates
  • Proteins
  • Fat
  • Pectins
  • Phenolic Compounds and Pigments
  • Vitamins and Minerals
  • Uses of Other Parts of Banana Plant
  • Banana Peel
  • Banana Leaves and Sheaths
  • Banana Pseudostem, Pith and
  • Male Bud


Technology of Banana Products

  • Introduction
  • Fruit Production—Present
  • Status
  • Post-harvest Biotechnology
  • Necessity
  • Processes to Extend
  • Shelf Life
  • Controlled Atmosphere
  • Radiation Preservation
  • Biochemical Mechanism
  • Precautions Required
  • Regulation of Endogenous Ethylene production
  • Value Addition—Process Development
  • Banana Products
  • Juice
  • Ripe Banana Powder
  • Sub-products


Banana Chips Manufacturing

  • Introduction
  • Fried banana chips .
  • Principles of preservation
  • Equipment needed
  • Selection of Raw Material
  • Preparation of Raw
  • Material
  • Ascorbic acid solution
  • Fruit juice dip
  • Honey dip
  • Fried banana chips
  • Plantain chips
  • Selection and preparation
  • of raw material
  • Soaking of slices
  • Fry
  • Oil, frying and quality control
  • Sun-dried banana chips
  • Equipment needed
  • Selection and preparation of raw material
  • Drying


Paper and Boards from Banana Stem Waste

  • Technology Package
  • Uses
  • Economics


Fruit Juices and Wines Technology

  • Indigenous Fruit Juices and Wines
  • Banana Beer and Wine
  • Banana Cultivars used
  • for Juice and Wine
  • Production
  • Physical and technical
  • characteristics of
  • bananas .
  • Chemical characteristics
  • of bananas
  • Volatile components
  • from fruits .
  • Nutrition facts
  • about bananas
  • Wine Fermentation
  • Alcoholic fermentation .
  • Yeasts
  • Wild Yeast
  • Saccharomvces
  • cerevisiae veast .
  • Factors that affect
  • fermentation
  • Juice clarification
  • Free available nitrogen
  • concentration
  • Temperature
  • Juice composition
  • Sulphur dioxide
  • Aeration
  • Acidity and pH
  • Ethanol and carbon dioxide
  • Minerals
  • Other fermentation
  • inhibiting factors
  • Fermentation
  • By-products
  • Esters
  • Aldehydes
  • Higher Alcohols
  • Glycerol
  • Microbial Spoilage In Wine
  • Commercial Enzymes
  • In Juice Processing and Winemaking
  • Role of pectolytic enzymes
  • Juice extraction from the fruit
  • Liquefaction
  • Maceration
  • Juice yield .
  • Aroma Extraction
  • Juice and wine
  • clarification
  • Juice filterability
  • Food Safety Aspects


Technology of Banana Dehydration

  • Introduction
  • Materials and methods
  • Materials
  • Moisture content determination
  • Experimental design and drying procedures
  • IR and hot air
  • predehydration
  • Freeze-drying
  • Quality evaluation
  • Colour
  • Thickness shrinkage
  • Crispness
  • Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM)
  • Statistical analysis
  • Results and discussion
  • Heating and drying rates of IR and hot air drying
  • Freeze-drying characteristics
  • Colour
  • Thickness shrinkage
  • Crispness of banana slices


Physiology of the Banana Root System

  • Introduction
  • How well does the banana root system work?
  • Oxygen supply
  • Roots as a “home” for microorganisms
  • Nutrient uptake by root systems
  • Water uptake and banana roots
  • Root signals


Banana Beer Technology

  • Raw material preparation Processing
  • Flow diagram
  • Packaging and storage


Tissue Culture in the Banana Industry

  • Introduction
  • Importance of Tissue Culture in Bananas
  • Rapid mass production of planting materials
  • Efficient distribution and transport of planting materials
  • Production of disease-free planting materials
  • Safe exchange of germplasm
  • Germplasm conservation
  • Tissue Culture in Crop Management
  • Pests and disease management
  • Tissue culture in cropping systems
  • Annual cropping/Crop timing
  • TC in Musa Improvement
  • Why TC technology is not adopted fully in other developing countries
  • Some problems associated with TC


Processing of Banana

  • Dried bananas
  • Processing
  • Sorting
  • Washing and peeling
  • Pulping and drying the fruits
  • Sorting and packaging
  • Labelling and storage
  • Quality requirements
  • Packaging and storage
  • Details given on packaging
  • Function of the product packaging
  • Transport packaging
  • Information printed on transport packaging
  • Storage
  • Banana marmalades
  • Processing
  • Sorting
  • Washing
  • Peeling and sorting
  • Pulping and adding sugar
  • Heating and boiling
  • Adding citric acid, pectin and spices (optional)
  • Cooling, labelling and storage
  • Quality requirements
  • Packaging and storage
  • Packaging types and material
  • Details given on packaging
  • Transport packaging
  • Storage
  • Training and informing of warehouse personnel
  • Canned bananas
  • Processing
  • Sorting .
  • Washing .
  • Peeling and sorting
  • Pulping .
  • Filling in jars or cans
  • Vacuum sealing, pasteurising or sterilising
  • Cooling
  • Labelling and storage
  • Quality requirements
  • Packaging and storage.
  • Packaging type and material
  • Details given on packaging
  • Transport packaging
  • Storage
  • Training and informing of warehouse personnel
  • Banana pulp
  • Processing
  • Banana pulp processing:
  • Manufacturing banana pulp
  • Quality requirements
  • Packaging and storage
  • Transport packaging
  • Storage
  • Training and informing of warehouse personnel
  • Annex: Quality Requirements
  • Definition
  • Quality characteristics regulations
  • a. Minimum characteristics
  • b. Classifications
  • Size classification regulations
  • Tolerance regulations
  • Presentation regulations
  • a. Uniformity
  • b. Packaging
  • c. Presentation
  • Regulations of carton labelling
  • a. Identification
  • b. Type of product
  • c. Origin of product
  • d. Commercial characteristics
  • e. Official stamp (optional)


The Ripening of Bananas

  • The chain from production to consumption
  • Country of origin
  • Transport (overseas)
  • Country of consumption
  • Cooling technology and product quality: Critical steps
  • Country of origin
  • Transport (overseas)
  • Country of consumption
  • The banana ripening process
  • Cooling and air techniques for banana ripening
  • Ripening system
  • Comapring Ripening Systems
  • The future for bananas ripening


Banana Wine

  • Microbiological analysis
  • The volatile compounds in banana wine distillates


Technologies and Packages of  Banana

  • Pre-Harvest Practices to Obtain Quality Banana
  • Post-Harvest Package of Technologies
  • Selection of Banana
  • Harvest Maturity
  • Harvesting and Handling
  • Packing of Hands
  • Post-Harvest Treatments
  • Method of packing
  • Pre-cooling
  • Method of Storage
  • Loading Into Container
  • Management In The Container
  • Post Transportation Care/Ripening


Making Export Quality Bananas

  • Codex Quality Standards For Export
  • Harvest Maturity
  • Maturity Indices
  • Varieties
  • Harvesting and Field Handling
  • Sorting and Grading
  • Packaging
  • Precooling
  • Storage
  • Modified atmosphere storage
  • Controlled atmosphere storage
  • Ripening


Dried and Dehydrated Products of Banana

  • Drying of Banana
  • Banana Flour
  • Procedure to make banana flour
  • Procedure to make Banana
  • Banana Fruit Bar
  • Procedure to make Banana fruit bar


Improvement of Banana

  • Introduction
  • Key Facts About Bananas
  • Genetics and Conservation of Banana Clones
  • Genetics of Diversity
  • Pre-Harvest Improvements
  • Germplasm Preservation
  • Micropropogation
  • Varietal Improvement by
  • Regeneration
  • Varietal Improvement by Genetic Transformation
  • Protoplast Culture
  • Synthetic Seeds
  • Cryopreservation.
  • Molecular Techniques
  • Genetic Markers
  • Characteristics of Ideal Genetic Markers
  • Marker-assisted Selection for Quality Improvement
  • Marker-Based Genetic Diversity
  • Markers for Genetic Fidelity
  • Post Harvest Improvements
  • Physiological Changes in Ripening Banana Fruit
  • Biochemical Changes in Ripening Banana Fruit
  • Nutritional Quality Improvements
  • Vaccine Production
  • Advantages of Plant-Derived Vaccines
  • Conclusions


Banana and Its Byen Products (Project Profile)

  • Introduction
  • Uses and applications
  • Manufacturing process
  • Process of manufacturing banana wafers
  • Manufacture of paper from banana pulp
  • Finishing
  • Banana Fibre Extracting Project (Wealth from Waste)
  • What is Banana fibre project?
  • Why for Banana fibre project?
  • How the process?
  • How the fibre is stored and packed?
  • Machinery
  • How many persons to operate the Machinery?
  • What is the space requirement needed?
  • Who can go for this Industry?
  • Is this project can be done in urban sectors?
  • What are the usages of Banana fibre?
  • About Marketing?
  • Details of Plant & Machinery
  • (Paper Manufacturing)
  • Banana Wafers or Chips Machinery
  • Automatic Plant of Banana Powder
  • Grand Total
  • Plant Economics of Banana Paper
  • Land & Building
  • Plant & Machinery
  • Fixed Capital
  • Working Capital
  • Requirement/Month
  • Raw Materials
  • Total Working Capital/ Month
  • Cost Of Project
  • Total Capital Investment
  • Turn Over/Annum


Banana Fibre Extraction and Hand Made Paper

  • Introduction
  • Properties and characteristics
  • Properties and Characteristics of Banana Fibre
  • Banana Fibre Extracting Project
  • ECO Machine
  • Usages
  • Banana fiber
  • Machinery process
  • Advantages of the machine over manual process
  • Employment opportunities
  • Demand and usages of banana fiber
  • Production made out of banana fiber
  • Manufacturing process of banana fibre
  • Plant economics of banana fibre and hand made paper
  • Land & building
  • Plant & machinery
  • Working capital
  • requirement/month
  • Raw materials
  • Total working capital/month
  • Total capital investment
  • Turn over/annum


Banana Fibre Extraction and Weaving

  • Introduction
  • Market potential
  • Plant capacity
  • Annual production
  • Raw materials
  • Suggested location
  • PROCESS
  • Banana Fibre Processing and Weaving
  • Machinery
  • Infrastructure
  • Total Capital Requirement
  • Fixed Capital
  • Working Capital
  • Operating expenses
  • Sales realisation


Banana Plantation

  • Introduction
  • Plant Economics of Banana Plantation
  • Land & building
  • Plant & machinery
  • Fixed capital
  • Working capital
  • requirement/annum
  • Raw materials
  • Total working capital/ annum
  • Cost of project
  • Total capital investment
  • Turn over/annum


Banana Powder (Dried Banana)

  • Introduction
  • Dehydration of banana
  • Method of dehydration
  • Pulverzing of dehydrated banana
  • Details of plant & machinery
  • Plant economics of banana powder (dried banana)
  • Land & building
  • Plant & machinery
  • Fixed capital
  • Working capital
  • requirement/month .
  • Raw materials
  • Total working capital/month
  • Cost of project
  • Total capital investment
  • Turn over/annum


Banana Wafers

  • Introduction
  • Properties
  • Composition of Fried Banana
  • Process of Manufacturing Of Banana Wafers
  • List of plant & machinery
  • Automatic banana wafer machine
  • Benefits of Automatic banana wafer machine
  • Robust Construction of commercial banana wafer machine
  • Uses of Banana Wafer Machine
  • Key Features of Banana wafer Machines
  • Plant economics of banana wafers
  • Land & building
  • Plant & machinery
  • Fixed capital
  • Working capital requirement/month
  • Raw materials
  • Total working capital/month
  • Cost of project
  • Total capital investment
  • Turn over/annum


Organic Cultivation of Banana

  • Introduction
  • Organic Farming
  • Organic Production
  • Climate and Soil
  • Land preparation
  • Varieties
  • Planting material
  • Planting and infilling
  • Intercropping
  • Manuring
  • Irrigation
  • Interculture operations
  • Propping
  • Mulching
  • Desuckering
  • Other operations
  • Plant Protection
  • Harvesting
  • Yield
  • Linkages


Wine From Banana (Project Profile)

  • Introduction
  • Manufacturing process
  • Plant economics of wine from banana
  • Land & building
  • Plant & machinery
  • Fixed capital .
  • Working capital
  • requirement/month
  • Raw materials
  • Total working capital/month
  • Total capital investment
  • Turn over/annum

PREFACE

Banana is an important fruit crop of many tropical and subtropical regions of India. It is cultivated in India in an area of 565.1 thousand ha and total production is around 18,701.9 thousand tons. Main banana growing states are Tamil Nadu,
Maharashtra, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. The global production of banana is around 76,436 thousand tons of which India contributes 24.5%. Besides India, other major banana producing countries are Brazil, China, Philippines, Costa Rica and Ecuador.

Flour is produced from both plantains and eating bananas in many regions, which can then be used in soups, baking or as a drink. The banana can also be used to make vinegar and to brew alcoholic beverages. The stamina flowers can be used as a vegetable, after briefly heating them in salty water (to remove the bitterness). Bananas can also be used as a starch-rich animal feed (pig farming). The fresh leaves are high in protein content, and are preferred for their taste by cattle and chickens. The leaves are also commonly used as packing material and for roofing. Along with the pseudo-stem they offer excellent mulching material. The exclusive use of healthy seeds, and application of appropriate measures, offer the most effective preventative and thus alternative methods of controlling insects and nematodes. The application of waste from extensive shrimp farms in Ecuador (shrimp shells) has shown good results against nematodes beside being a good organic fertilizer.


The book contains the following chapter: Banana, Cultivation of Bananas, Banana and its Bye-products, Technology of Banana Products, Banana Chips Manufacturing, Paper and Boards from Banana Stem Waste, Fruit Juices and Wines Technology, Technology of Banana Dehydration, Physiology of the Banana Root System, Banana Beer Technology, Tissue Culture in the Banana Industry, Processing of Banana, The Ripening of Bananas, Banana Wine, Technologies and Packages of Banana, Making Export Quality Bananas, Dried and Dehydrated Products of Banana, Improvement of Banana, Banana and Its Bye Products (Project Profile), Banana Fibre Extraction and Hand Made Paper, Banana Fibre Extraction and Weaving, Banana Plantation, Banana Powder (Dried Banana), Banana Wafers, Organic Cultivation of Banana, Wine From Banana (Project Profile).
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