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      HAND BOOK OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

      BIOTECHNOLOGY: AN OVERVIEW

      Definitions
      Historical Background
      Scope and Importance of Biotechnology
      Genetic Engineering
      Tissue Culture
      Protoplast Culture and Micropropagations
      Biosensors, Biochips, Biofilms and Biosurfactents
      Applications of Biotechnology to Agriculture
      Plant Breeding
      Improvement of quality and Productivity in horticulture
      Specific Pathogen-free Plant production
      Establishment of an efficient for virus Elimination in Meristem Cultures and Regeneration of High Quality plants
      Nitrogen-Fixation
      Increased Disease Resistance
      Improved Quality of Plant Products
      Biotechnology in Tree Improvement
      Improved Resistance of Plants to stress
      Improving Salt Tolerance and Biosaline Concept
      Protein (or Enzyme) Engineering
      Animal Diseases
      Livestock Production
      Recombinant DNA Technology and Rumen Bacteria
      Improvement of Nutritive Value of Low Quality Feeds
      Novel Food (Protein) Sources
      Improvement of Environment
      Research Promotion and Priorities in India
      Bioinformatics
      Gene Banking, Conservation and Exchange in India
      Plant Molecular Biological Researches
      Service Oriented
      Infrastructural Facilities

      RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY

      Gene and Gene Function
      Gene Transmission
      Recombinant DNA Technology Definitions
      Restriction Endonucleases
      Type or Restriction Endonucleases
      Nomenclature
      Recognition Sequences
      Cleavage Patterns
      Modification of Cut Ends
      Steps in Gene Cloning
      Isolation of the Desired Gene
      cDNA Library
      Genomic Library
      Chemical Synthesis of Gene
      Gene Amplification Through Polymerase Chain Reaction
      Vectors
      Cloning and Expression Vectors
      E.Coli Vectors
      Properties of a Good Host
      Plasmids
      Plasmid Vectors
      pSC101
      pBR322
      pUC7
      Bacteriophage Vectors
      Phage M 31 Vectors
      Cosmid Vectors
      Phasmid Vectors
      Vectors for Other Bacteria
      Shuttle Vectors
      Yeast Vectors
      Plasmid Vectors
      ARS Vectors
      Mini chromosome Vectors
      Artificial Chromosome Vectors
      Vectors for Animals
      SV 40 Vectors
      Bovine Papillomavirus (BPV) Vectors
      Restrovirus Vectors
      Vectors for Plants
      Integration of the DNA Insert into the Vector
      Both Ends Cohesive and Compatible
      Both Ends Cohesive and Separately Matched
      Both Ends Cohesive and Unmatched
      Both Ends Flush/Blunt
      One End Cohesive and Compatible. The Other End Blunt
      Introduction of the Vector Into a Suitable Host
      Increased Competence of E.coli by CaCl2 Treatment
      Infection by Vectors Packaged as Virions
      Selection of Recombinant Clones
      Selection of Clones Containing Recombinant Vectors
      Elimination of Non transformed Cells
      Selection of the Clone containing A Specific DNA Insert
      Multiplication Expression and Integrationof the DNA Insert in Host Genome

      PLANT TISSUE CULTURE: PRINCIPLES AND METHODOLOGY

      Importance of Tissue Culture Technique
      History of Plant Tissue Culture Researches
      Tissue Culture Researches In India
      Plant Tissue Culture Principles
      Callus Culture
      Meristem Culture
      Organ Culture
      The concept of Tetiopotency of Cells
      Contrasts between Plant and Animal Cells
      The Autonomous Organelles Their Behaviour During Growth Induction and Morphogenesis
      Sites and Modes of Action of Growth Regulating Substances
      The Behaviour of Carrof cells in vitro
      Clonal development from Animal and Plant Cells
      Plant Tissue Culture:Methods
      Media Preparation: Area/Room
      Cabinets or Sheives
      Culture Media, Washing Powder/Liquid Detergent, Disinfectants
      Other requirements
      Aseptic Transfer Chamber Area
      Environmentally controlled culture room
      Analytical Room
      Acclimatization Room
      Miscellaneous Items
      Specification of Laboratory Equipments
      Aseptic Technique
      Sterilisation of Plant tissues
      Cleaning (preparation of Glasswares/Plastic wares (Autoclavable)
      Sterilisation
      Surfactants
      Control of Bacterial and Fungal Contaminants by Antibiotics in Plant tissue culture
      In Vitro Environment
      Pretreatment of Explant Tissues Prior to Culture
      Procedure
      Sterilisation procedure may be enhanced by
      Procedure
      Isolation of Plant Material
      Age of the Plant Tissue
      Cellus Tissue and Orgnogenesis
      Suspension Cell Culture from Callus in vitro
      Micropropagation through Organogenesis
      Culture Media and Preparation
      Media Components
      Inorganic Salts
      Plant Growth Regulators
      Carbon Source
      Gelling Agents
      Amino Acids and Amids
      Antibiotics
      Natural Complexes
      Additional Requirements
      Sterilization of Media
      Use and Storage of Coconut Water
      Related Procedure Ultraviolet Light
      Preparation of Phenol
      Working with 32p Labelled  Compounds
      Silanization of Plastic and Glasswares
      Preparation of Dialysis Tubing
      Initiation of Embryogenesis of Suspension Culture
      Materials
      Method
      Initiation of Embryogenic tissue
      Establishment of Embryogenic Suspension Culture
      Maturation of Embryos
      Important Parameters for Consideration
      Different Causes of Failures (and Remedies)

      SYNTHETIC SEEDS

      The Natural Seed
      Development of the Concepts of tissue culture and Artificial seeds
      Discovery of Synthetic Seeds
      Uses and Limitations of Artificial Seeds
      Potential uses of Artificial Seeds
      Production of Synthetic Seeds
      Encapsulation of Coating of Synthetic Seed
      Gel Complexation via a Dropping procedure
      Automate Encapsulation Process
      Mass Balance Concept
      Steps of Commercial Artificial Seed Production
      Hydrogel Encapsulation of Artificial Seeds
      Synthetic Seed and Forest Trees

      BIOTECHNOLOGY METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT

      The Green Revolution
      Breeding objectives
      Basic Problems in Development of Useful Crop Varieties
      Improvement of Existing and New Cultivated Plants
      Plant Breeding and Concepts of Crop Improvement
      Methods of Crop Improvement
      Cell Fusion Method
      Somatic Cell Hybridization
      Somaclonal Variation
      Organ Culture Techniques
      Through Genetic Engineering
      Gene Transfer by Manipulating DNA Directly
      Agrobacterium mediated Gene Transfer
      Direct DNA Transfer Technology
      Microinjection
      Virally Mediated Gene Transfer
      Gene controlled Crop Yield
      Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms
      Detection of Nucleic Acid sequence
      A Shopping list of genes
      Organellar and Crop Improvement
      Genes for disease Resistance
      Transposon
      Site, Specific mutagenesis
      Breakthrough in the Development of Neurotoxin-Free
      Lathyrus sativus
      Development of Salt Tolerant Varieties
      Applications of Tissue Culture in Increasing Salt Tolerance
      Future Trends in Plant Breeding
      Possible Application of Biotechnology in Nematode Management
      Embryo Rescue Technique
      Protoplast Fusion
      Recombinant DNA Technology
      Biocontrol Strategies
      Nematode Physiology
      Nematode Taxonomy
      Culturing of Plant Parasitic Nematodes

      TRANSGENIC PLANTS

       How to develop Transgenic Plants
      Agrobacterium Mediated Gene Transfer
      Vectors for Agrobacterium Mediated Plant Transformation
      Cointegrating Vectors
      Binary Vectors
      Selectable Markets for Plant Transformation
      Transformation of Plants
      Herbicide Resistance
      Engineered Resistance against Herbicide
      Modification of the target
      Resistance against glyphosate
      Resistance against sulfonylurea and imidazolinone herbicides
      Resistance against Phosphinothricin
      Resistance against Atrazine
      Detoxification or degradation or herbicide
      Engineered Resistance against Pest and Insects
      Bacillus thuringiensis Endo Toxins
      Protease inhibitors
      Gene for other insecticidal Secondary Metabolites
      Disease Resistance
      Post  Harvest Management
      Engineered Resistance against Viral Infection
      Cross Protection
      Gene of Virus Coat
      Antisense RNA Mediated Protection
      Satellite RNA and its use for transformation
      Defective interfering RNA/DNA Protection
      Replicase Mediated Protection
      Engineered Resistance against fungal Pathogen
      Genetic Engineering and Plant Lipids
      Genetic Engineering and Storage proteins

      ENZYME TECHNOLOGY

      Introduction
      Enzymes vs. Catalysts
      Enzymes Vs. Whole Cells
      Production of Enzymes
      Classification and Nomenclature
      Chemical Energetics
      Thermodynamic Properties
      Kinetic Properties
      Mechanism enzyme action
      Enzymes Kinetics
      Extremozymes
      Nontraditional Enzymes
      Abzymes
      Ribozymes
      Methods of Immobilisation on Enzyme
      Advantages of Immobilisation
      Disadvantages of Immobilisation
      Uses of Enzymes in solution
      Detergents
      Leather Industries
      Wood Industries
      Glucose from Cellulose
      Food, Dairy, Juice and Bevarages Industries
      Production of Glucose Syrup
      Maltose Syrup
      Sucrose Industry
      Uses in Medicine
      Aspartame Synthesis
      Biphasic Systems
      Aqueous Two Phase Systems
      Aqueous Organic Biphasic Systems
      Uses of Immobilised Enzymes
      High Fructose Corn Syrup
      Immobilised Raffinase
      Immobilised Invertase
      Immobilised Lactase
      Antiblotic Production
      Preparation of Acrylamide
      Enzyme Reactors
      Stirred Tank Reactors
      Membrance Reactors
      Continuous Flow reactors
      Biosensors
      General Features
      Types of Biosensors
      Colorimetric Test Strips
      Commercial Potential
      Enzyme Engineering
      Objective of Enzyme Engineering
      Principles of Enzyme Engineering
      Examples of Enzyme Engineering
      Bi- and Poly Functional Enzymes
      Synzymes
      Solvent Engineering
      Safety and regulatory aspects
      Allergy
      Activity Related Toxicity Residual
      Microbiological Activity

      BIOTECHNOLOGY CROP IMPROVEMENT IN INDIA

      India's Efforts
      Conservation of Plant genetic Resources
      Gemplasm Collection
      Germplasm Exchange
      Long term Conservation
      Germplasm Evaluation
      Germplasm Conservation
      In Vitro Conservation by Tissue Culture
      Application of Biotechnology to Rice Production
      Development of Molecular Tools in Rice
      Wheat
      O'seed Crops
      Commercial Crops
      Standardisation of Multilocation Technique for Cashew
      Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis)
      Beverage Crops
      Tea (Camellia sinensis)
      Coffee (Coffea arabica)
      Spices and Condiments
      Cardamom (Ellettaria cardamommum Mation)
      Pepper (Piper nigrum L)
      Ginger (Zingiber officinals)
      Tuber Crops
      Sweet Potato (Ipomoss spp.)
      Cassava (Manihot Spp)
      Elephant Foot Yam (Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb) Blume)
      Aroida (Colocasia)
      Tissue Culture Technique for Aroids (Colocasla) Improvement
      Minor Tuber Crops
      Chinese Potato (Coleus perviflorus Benth)
      Breeding Constraints
      Fruit Crops
      Banana (Musa Paradiaiaca L.)
      Mango (mengifera indica L.)
      Citrus

      BIOTECHNOLOGY FORESTRY

      Selection of Trees for Indian Forestry
      Forest Resources
      Specific Recent Technologies Relevant to Forestry
      Microbial Breakdown of Cell Wall Components
      Rapid Propagation of Some Forest Trees
      Direct Someatic Embryogenesis from Immature Seeds of Rosewood (Dalbergia Latifolia Roxb.)
      Micropropagation of Buteamonosperma (Lam) Taub
      Applications of biotechnologies to Forest Soil Microbiology

      BIOTECHNOLOGY AGRO INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT

      The Fermentation Technology
      How and Why do Microorganisms Make Alcohol?
      Fermentation Technology
      Downstream Processing
      Purifying the Products
      Fermenter Design Considerations
      Materials of the Bioreactors
      Selection of Microbes in Fermentation Industry
      Fermentation Medium
      Regulatory Mechanisms and Industrial Fermentations
      Enzymes Fermentation
      Induction of Fermentation Enzymes
      Feedback Repression
      Calabolic Repression
      Hyperproduction by Deregulated Mutantsgene Dosage
      Production of Alcoholic Beverages
      Wine
      Beer
      Whiskey
      Miso
      Organic Acid Fermentation
      Uses of Citric Acid
      Mechanism of Citric Acid Formation
      Commercial Production of Citric Acid
      Gluconic Acid
      D-Lactic Acid
      Gallic Acid
      Fumaric Acid
      Haconic Acid
      Glycerol
      Vitamins
      Vitamin B Complex
      Vitamin C
      Vitamin D
      Commercial Production of Antibiotics
      Screening of antibioic Producers
      Penicillin
      Commercial Production of Penicillin
      Procedure
      Penicillin Biosynthesis
      Streptomycin
      Cephalosporins
      Variotin
      Animal Feed Types
      Incorporation of Feed Additives
      Feed Medication Routes
      Development of a New Active Ingredient
      Medicinal Premix Product Development
      Distribution of Medicated Feed Additives
      Future Development

      BIOTECHNOLOGY BIOMASS NENERGY

      Composition of Biomass
      Cellulose
      Hemicellulose
      Lignin
      Types of Biomass
      Salvinia
      Water Hyacinth (Eicchornia crassipes)
      Wastes as Renewable Source of Energy
      Types of Wastes
      Classification Based on Chemical Nature
      Classification Based on Physical State
      Composition of Wastes
      source of Wastes
      Agriculture
      Methods for Energy ProductionBariquelling
      Liquetacion (The Biological proess (Bioconversion)
      Enzymatic Digestion
      Degradation of Cellulose
      Degradation of Hemicellulose
      Anaerobic Digestion
      Aerobic Digestion
      Hydrolysis of Wood Ethanol
      Ethanol Production for Energy
      Conversion of Methane (into the Synthetic Gas Factors Affecting Methane Formation
      The Expeenses  of India and China
      Energy and Fuel Using Microoganisms
      Poduction of Hydrogen
      Petroplants
      Hevea Rubber
      Euphorbia
      Guayule and Russian Dan dandelion
      Ask (Calotropic process0
      Algal Hydrocarbons

      FOOD AND BEVERAGES

      Introduction
      Fermented Foods
      Problems in Solid Substrate Fermentation
      Advantages  of Fermented Foods
      The Process
      Cheese production
      Coagulum Formation
      Separation of Gurd
      Ripening
      Use of engymes in  Food Industry
      Use of Proteases in Food Processing
      Uses of Glucose Oxidase and Calalase
      Use of Lactase in Dairy Industry
      Enzymes in Fruit Juice and Brewing Industries
      Fruit Juices and Wines
      Beer
      Microbial Biomass
      Mushrooms
      Agricus bisporus
      Pleurotus spp.
      Advantages of Mushrooms
      Single Cell Protein
      Micro organisms
      Substrates
      Production of SCP
      Biomass Recovery
      Nutritional and Safely Evaluations

      FUEL BIOTECHNOLOGY

      Introduction
      Useful Features of Biofuels
      Undessirable Features of Biofuels
      Areas for future Research Focus
      Energy Crops
      Wood
      Sugar and Starch Crops
      Hydrocarbon Producing Crops
      Modes of Utilisation of Biomass
      Biogas
      The Substrate
      The Digester
      The Micro organisms
      Factors Affecting Biogas Yields
      Precautions
      Advantages
      Disadvantages
      Bioethanol
      Bioethanol vs. Petrol
      Production of Bioethanol
      Ethanol Recovery
      Future Directions for Research and Development
      Biobutanol
      Biodiesel
      Lipids As a Source of biodiesel
      Biodiesel from Hydrocarbons
      Biohydrogen
      Anaerobic Bacteria
      Photosynthetic Algas
      In Vitro Photosynthetic Hydrogenase System

      PLANT ECONOMICS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE

      Land and Building
      Plant and Machinery
      Fixed Capital
      Raw Materials
      Total Working Capital/Month
      Total Capital Investment
      Turn Over/ Annum

      PLANT ECONOMICS OF BIOFERTILIZERS FROM COWDUNG

      Land and Building
      Plant and Machinery
      Fixed Capital
      Raw Materials
      Total Working Capital/Month
      Total Capital Investment
      Turn Over/ Annum

      PLANT ECONOMICS OF BIOFERTILIZERS FROM WASTE

      Land and Building
      Plant and Machinery
      Fixed Capital
      Raw Materials
      Total Working Capital/Month
      Total Capital Investment
      Turn Over/ Annum

      PLANT ECONOMICS OF BIOFERTILIZERS FROM GARBAGE (MSW)

      Land and Building
      Plant and Machinery
      Fixed Capital
      Raw Materials
      Total Working Capital/Month
      Total Capital Investment
      Turn Over/ Annum

      PLANT ECOKNOMICS OF ETHANOL (BIOFUEL) FROM MOLASSES

      Land and Building
      Plant and Machinery
      Fixed Capital
      Raw Materials
      Total Working Capital/Month
      Total Capital Investment
      Turn Over/ Annum

      PLANT ECONOMICS OF FLORICULTURE(CUT FLOWER ROSE WITH GREEN HOUSE TECHNOLOGY

      Land and Building
      Plant and Machinery
      Fixed Capital
      Raw Materials
      Total Working Capital/Month
      Total Capital Investment
      Turn Over/ Annum

      PLANT ECONOMICS OF HYBRID  SEEDS

      Land and Building
      Plant and Machinery
      Fixed Capital
      Raw Materials
      Total Working Capital/Month
      Total Capital Investment
      Turn Over/ Annum


      PLANT ECONOMICS OF jATROPHA (BIO-DIESEL) CULTIVATION & EXTRACTION

      Land and Building
      Plant and Machinery
      Fixed Capital
      Raw Materials
      Total Working Capital/Month
      Total Capital Investment
      Turn Over/ Annum

      PLANT ECONOMICS OF ORGANIC MANURE

      Land and Building
      Plant and Machinery
      Fixed Capital
      Raw Materials
      Total Working Capital/Month
      Total Capital Investment
      Turn Over/ Annum

      PLANT ECONOMICS OF PROFTEIN AND PROTEIN BASED PRODUCTS

      Land and Building
      Plant and Machinery
      Fixed Capital
      Raw Materials
      Total Working Capital/Month
      Total Capital Investment
      Turn Over/ Annum


      PLANT ECONOMICS OF TISSUE CULTURE  (100% E.O.U.)

      Land and Building
      Plant and Machinery
      Fixed Capital
      Raw Materials
      Total Working Capital/Month
      Total Capital Investment
      Turn Over/ Annum

      PLANT ECONOMICS OF VERMI COMPOSTING

      Land and Building
      Plant and Machinery
      Fixed Capital
      Raw Materials
      Total Working Capital/Month
      Total Capital Investment
      Turn Over/ Annum

      SUPPLIERS OF PLANT AND MACHINERIES

      Autoclaves
      Bag Filling Machinery
      Blowers
      Boilers Industrial
      Bucket Elevator
      Chemical Plant Machinery
      Cooling Towers
      Distillation Columns & Towers
      Dryers Fluid Bed
      Granulators
      Heat Exchanger
      Incubators
      Laboratory Equipment & Supplies
      Laboratory Glassware
      Mixers
      Pulverisers
      Screen Vibratory (Machinery) Silos
      Storage Tank
      Water Softening Systems
      Weighing Scales

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