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    technology of water and packaged drinking water (hand book)

    technology of water and packaged drinking water (hand book)
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    technology of water and packaged drinking water (hand book)
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      Contents-cum-Index
       
      Chapter 1
      WATER FOR ALL
       
      Halving drinking water
      consumption
       
      Chapter 2
      WATER
       
      Institutions and water
      policy
      Water allocation systems
      Property rights systems
      and surface water
      allocation
      A “public utility” model for water allocation and pollution control
      Prices and surface water allocation
      Price impacts on water use
      China
      India
      Indonesia
      Coordinating groundwater extraction
      Conjunctive groundwater and surface water management
      Preserving water quality
      The Water Sellers
      Non-point pollution control options
      Policy issues in irrigated agriculture
      Irrigation in the 1990s and beyond
      Trends in irrigated area
      Crop prices and construction costs
      Efficient water use at the farm level
      Waterlogging, salinity and drainage
      Water quality management
      Small-scale water programmes
      Scarce water resources management
      Supporting action
      Irrigation and land degradation
      Irrigation: Good
      government and good management
      Good government and irrigation performance
      Legitimacy
      Accountability
      Competence
      Rule of law
      Water user associations and NGOs
      Self-financed operations
      The Philippines’ Bureaucratic reform
      Legal and financial status of the NIA
      A gradual approach
      Understanding farmers
      Future directions in water management policy
      The hidden treasure
      What is this groundwater?
       
      Chapter 3
      GROUNDWATER MINING
       
      Undesirable effects of overexploitation
      Benefits of groundwater exploitation
      Management of aquifers' utilization
      Alternatives to groundwater mining
      Artificial recharge of aquifers
      Reclamation and reuse of wastewater
      Desalination
      Weather modification
      Demand modification
      Conclusions
       
      Chapter 4
      GROUNDWATER DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA
       
      Introduction
      Groundwater Occurrence
      Water resources availability and demand
      Groundwater
      development
      Ground water rights
      Groundwater legislation
      Groundwater quality
      Future strategies of groundwater development
      Groundwater development in water logged areas
      Evaluation of deep aquifer systems
      Groundwater development in the eastern parts of the country
      Inter-basin water transfer
      Groundwater development in drought prone areas
      Groundwater-seawater interaction
      Artificial recharge
      Availability of funds
      Water quality monitoring
      Active participation of women
      Conclusions
       
      Chapter 5
      FRESHWATER RESOURCES AND THEIR CONJUNCTIVE USE
       
      Introduction
      The concept of conjunctive use
      Water storage
      Subsurface water storage
      Surface water storage
      Allocation of water releases
      Conjunctive use and irrigation development
      Research thrust and development
      Data base improvement
      Modelling technology
      Simulation models
      Optimization models
      Sustainability criteria
      Spatial analysis procedures
      Decision support systems
      Framework for implementation of conjunctive use R & D
      Institutional issues
      Financial issues
      Challenges for the future
      Rainfall/Runoff processes and modelling
      Groundwater management, monitoring and remediation
      Unsaturated zone
      Exchange with surface water and coupled flow
      Conflict resolution in water management
      Water resource management under climate change
      Concluding remarks
      A global perspective on water scarcity and poverty
      The issue
      Irrigation and poverty alleviation-past achievements
      Impact of water scarcity on the poor
      Emerging groundwater problem
      Marginal areas
      Challenge for poverty alleviation
      Focus on groundwater recharge
      Conjunctive use of surface and ground waters
      Groundwater possibilities in India
      Artificial recharge of groundwater
      Research findings and latest developments
       
      Chapter 6
      TECHNOLOGIES FOR RECYCLING OF WASTE WATER
       
      Pollution prevention in industry
      Total water management approach to recycle of waste water
      Guidelines for selection of recycle scheme
      Recycle technologies
      Effluent treatment
      Tertiary treatment
      Advanced treatment
      Biological treatment
      Clarification
      Filtration
      Adsorption
      Membrane Bio-reactor
      Ultra filtration
      Nanofiltration (NF)
      Reverse osmosis
      Photo Chemical Oxidation (PCO)
      Ion exchange process
      Conclusion
       
      Chapter 7
      RECOVERY OF WATER FROM DOMESTIC AND INDUSTRIAL WASTE WATER
       
      Introduction
      Water recovery and TDS management
      Management of residual saline streams
      Conclusion
       
      Chapter 8
      REVERSE OSMOSIS
       
      Filtration spectrum
      Membrane selection
      Pre-treatment
      Post-treatment
      Maintenance
      Energy recovery
       
      Chapter 9
      WATER/EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT IN THE FOOD PROCESSING INDUSTRIES
       
      Introduction
      Important consideration
      Advantages of water/effluent treatment
       
      Chapter 10
      RECOVERY OF WATER FROM NON CONVENTIONAL RESOURCES
       
      Background
      Need for TDS management and water recovery
      Technologies for treatment of salinity/TDS and water recovery
      Management of residual saline streams
      Observation and suggestions
       
      Chapter 11
      COOLING WATER SYSTEM MANAGEMENT
       
      Challenges
      Cooling tower
      Blowdown
      Factors affecting corrosion
      Test control method
      Microbiological problem
      Chemistry
      Control
      Other considerations
       
      Chapter 12
      WASTE WATER USE
       
      Planning of water services
      Mapping of urban streets, collection and conveyance of liquid waters
      Sewerage system
      Storm water drainage
      Onsite and end of pipe treatment plants
      Need for master planning
      Inter-linkages between roads and water related services of infrastructure
      BOT projects/public private partnership model for implementation
      Financial investment criteria with BOT implementation
       
      Chapter 13
      TECHNIQUES FOR WATER CONSERVATION IN FOOD AND BEVERAGE (F & B) INDUSTRY
       
      Overview of wastewater generation
      Pre-treatment of wastewater
      Controlling wastewater is highly cost effective
      Continuing to try new ideas
      Water conservation techniques
      Several opportunities in the food industry include
       
      Chapter 14
      PLASTICS CONTAINERS FOR DRINKING/POTABLE WATER AND REGULATIONS
       
      Introduction
      Materials and method
      Packaging materials
      Method
      Results and discussion
       
      Chapter 15
      THE GREAT THREAT OF POOR QUALITY OF COUNTERFEITING BOTTLING WATER
       
      Chapter 16
      WATER TREATMENT USING OZONE
       
      Introduction
      Methods of water treatment
      Advantages of OZONE over chlorine
      Ozone
      Ozone dose
      Testing for effective disinfection
      Popular ozone applications
      Economic considerations
       
      Chapter 17
      WATER CONSERVATION BY OPTIMIZING WATER USE
       
      Introduction
      Water conservation opportunity in industries
      Use optimization
      Water recycling
      External used water sources for cooling water system
      Internal used water sources for cooling water systems
      Scheme for selected reuse applications is presented (in flow chart)
      Some Schemes for recycling of Water in CW System
      Reuse of treated sewage for condenser cooling in power plant - a case study
      System details
      Treatment for recycling purpose
      Internal treatment
      Monitoring
      Advantages of treatment
      The treatment leads to following advantages
      Efficient treatment programme
      Water conservation
       
      Chapter 18
      NON-CONVENTIONAL TECHNIQUES TO REMOVE HEAVY METALS FROM WASTEWATER
       
      Introduction
      Application Of Fly Ash
      Characteristic analysis of Fly Ash
      Effects Of Carbon Content On The Adsorption of Metal Ions
      Coagulation With Sea Water Liquid Bittern
      Membrane Techniques
      Microfiltration
      Reverse Osmosis
      Ultrafiltration
      Nanofiltration
      Liquid Membranes
       
      Chapter 19
      COOLING WATER TREATMENT
       
      Open Cooling Tower Water Balance
      Cooling Water Associated Problems
      Corrosion : Mechanisms, Monitoring & Control
      Corrosion Mechanism
      Corrosion Inhibitors
      Scale
      Scale Control Programs
      Acid Feed
      Alkaline treatment methods
      Fouling
      Types of Fouling
      General Fouling
      Fouling by corrosion products
      Microbiological Fouling
      Process leaks
      Fouling control methods
      Side stream filtration
      Chemical control methods
      Guidelines for C.W. Treatment Selection and Application
      Instrumentation and Monitoring
      Instruments
      Critical Cooling Tower Variables
      Water treatment monitoring software
       
      Chapter 20
      ROLE OF MEMBRANE FILTRATION FOR INDUSTRIAL WATER TREATMENT AND WASTEWATER
       
      Reuse
      Flexographic Ink
      Metal Finishing
      Alkali Cleaner
      Chemical Mechanical Planarization
      Boiler Makeup Water
      Municipal Wastewater Treatment
       
      Chapter 21
      MEETING WATER QUALITY NEEDS THROUGH MULTIPLE TECHNOLOGIES
       
      Carbon Filtration
      Exhaustion
      What does this have to do with treatment trains?
      Carbon Filtration/RO Combo
      Consult the manufacturer
      Emerging Water Needs
       
      Chapter 22
      USE OF OZONE IN PACKAGED DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION AND PURIFICATION
       
      Introduction
      Ozone
      Packaged Drinking Water
      Ozone Treatment
      Safety Aspects
      Advantages of Ozone
      Ozone Treatment System Design
       
      Chapter 23
      HOW SAFE IS BOTTLED WATER
       
      Why NSF Standards
       
      Chapter 24
      OZONE – A BOON TO BOTTLERS
       
      Production of Bottled Water
      What is ozone?
      Properties of Ozone
      How the Ozone is made
      Why Ozone for Disinfection of Water?
      What is Pure & Impure Ozone?
      Ozone: How Safe?
      What are the major components of ozone generator?
      Feed Gas Preparation System
      Pressure and Flow Regulation
      Ozone Production System
      Process Control & Protection
      Ozone Output Indicator & Controller
      Cooling Arrangement
      Cabinet or Enclosure
      How is water ozonation carried out?
      Ozonation by diffusion method
      Inline Ventury Injection system
      Ozone injection by Recirculation method
      What should be the capacity of ozone generator in gm/hr
      Factors affecting the solubility of ozone in water
      Water Composition
      Concentration of Ozone
      Temperature of Water
      Pressure
      Method of Contact
      How The Dissolution of Ozone Is Checked in Product Water?
      Using DTP Tablets
      Using ORP Indicator
      If Ozone Can Be Used For Environmental SteriliZation In Filling Area?
      If Ozone Can Be Used For Cip (Clean In Place) In A Packaged Water Plant?
      What Care Should Be Taken While Using Ozone Generators?
       
      Chapter 25
      ADVANCES IN MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY FOR BEVERAGE WATER TREATMENT
       
      Introduction
      Filtration Characteristics
      System Design
      Activated Carbon
      Future
       
      Chapter 26
      APPLICATION OF MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY IN WATER PROCESSING
       
      Chapter 27
      OZONE - THE 21ST CENTURY DISINFECTANT
       
      Water Purification and Disinfection
      Disinfection
      Tastes and odours
      Colour
      Turbidity
      Drinking water
      High purity water systems
      Pharmaceuticals industries
      Electronics industry
      Industrial wastewater pollution control
      Odour control
      Cooling towers - water
      Swimming pools and spas
      Ozone Applications In the Food Industry
      Preservation and storage
      Germicidal effect
      Effect on odors
      Effect on metabolism
      Meat
      Cheese
      Eggs
      Beverages
      Disinfection and removal of odors
      Application for agriculture
      Air Purification Through Ozone
      Hotels and motels
      Hospitals/Nursing Homes/Clinics
      Vehicle restoration
      Fire and restoration
       
      Chapter 28
      MANUFACTURING MINERAL WATER I.E. WATER CONTAINING SUFFICIENT/ 
      REQUIRED QUANTITY OF MINERALS WHICH IS REQUIRED TO HUMAN BODIES
       
      Process
      Raw Water Storage
      Multi Graded sand Filter
      Activated Carbon Filter
      Antiscalant Dosing System
      Ultraviolet Disinfection System
      Micron Filtration
      Osmotic pressure System (High Pressure Pump)
      Desalination System by Reverse Osmosis Membrane Element
      Ion Controlling System
      Storage of Treated Water
      Fine Polishing Filtration
      UV system
      Ozonization
      Rinsing Filling & Capping with Lable shrinking M/c
      Bottle Manufacturing Machine
      Reverse Osmosis Membrane Cleaning System
      Packing of mineral water in Bottles, container or polypack
      The Equipments in the project of packaged drinking water manufacturing unit
      Following are the requirement and it is managed by the purchaser
       
      Chapter 29
      PROJECT PROFILE ON PURIFIED BOTTLED WATER
       
      Purification of Water
      Project Brief
      Project Investment
      Manufacturing Process
      Proposed Product Mix
      The Process Flow
      Strategic Recommendations
      Market Entry Timing
      Key Success Factor
      Marketing
      Pricing
      Product Packaging
      Availability
      Suitability
      Hygiene
      Packaging
      Transportation
      Marking
      Sampling
      Scale of Sample
      Number of Test
      Criteria for Conformity
      Machinery and Equipment Requirements
      Human Resource Requirement
      Land and Building Requirements
      Recommended Mode of Land Acquisition
       
      Chapter 30
      TECHNOLOGY AND MARKET TREND OF PACKAGED DRINKING WATER
       
      Bottled Water Industry in India
      Bottled water top players in India
      History of Bottled water in India
      Variety of packages
      Artesian well water
      Mineral water
      Spring water
      Well water
      Tap Water
      Why Bottled water?
      Bottled Water
      How Safe?
      Water resources overexploited
      Bottled water companies earn high profits
      Plastic Bottles Pollution
      Plastic Bottles requires costly Oil
      The anti-bottling protests
      Pro-tap water consciousness
      Bottled Water law in India
      Health Issue-Purity of bottled water
      Traditional Indian methods of cooling and purifying water
      Rainwater is safe, doesn't bring about adverse effects
      Manufacturing Process
      Filtration
      Desalination
      Reverse Osmosis
      Nanofiltration (NF)
      Ultrafiltration (UF)
      Microfiltration (MF)
      Ultra Violet Unit (UV)
      Recommended maximum concentration levels in Ultra Violet unit
      Ozonation through Ozonator
      What is Ozone?
      Ozone Production
      Rinsing, Filling and Capping Machinery
      Bottle Blowing stations
      Coding and Packing Machines
      Water Treatment Plant
      Laboratory for Water Testing
      RO water Purification Plant
       
      Chapter 31
      MINERAL WATER PLANT/ PACKAGED DRINKING WATER PLANT
      WITH ISI LAB AND CERTIFICATION
       
      Mineral Water Plant/ Packaged Drinking Water Plant
      Features
      The Water Treatment
      Plant consists of One or All of the below mentioned process
      Water Storage Tank
      Multi Grade Sand Filter
      Activated Carbon Filter
      Antiscalant Dosing System
      Micron Filters
      Reverse Osmosis System
      Ultra Violet Sterilizer
      Ozone Generator
      Mineral water plant isi consultancy and laboratory setup
       
      Chapter 32
      MINERAL WATER PLANT
       
      Introduction
      Capacity
      Process Flow
      Machines/Equipment Offered
      Purification Section
      Bottle Manufacturing Section
      Bottling Section
       
      Chapter 33
      PROJECT PROFILE ON MINERAL WATER
       
      Product Description and Application
      Pricing and Distribution
      Plant Capacity and Production Programme
      Plant Capacity
      Production Programme
      Materials and Inputs
      Raw Materials
      Utilities
      Technology and Engineering Technology
      Production Process
      Engineering
      Machinery and Equipment
      Land, Buildings and Civil Works
      Manpower
      Requirement
      Total Initial Investment Cost
       
      Chapter 34
      THE USE OF DISTILLATION TECHNOLOGY IN THE BOTTLED WATER INDUSTRY
       
      A matter of dollars and cents
      Two types of systems
      Part of customer awareness
      Conclusion
      FYI: Vapor Compression Technology

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