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    Sugarcane Plantation and Sugar Mill with by Product (Cap: 500 TCD)

    Sugarcane Plantation and Sugar Mill with by Product (Cap: 500 TCD)
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    Sugarcane Plantation and Sugar Mill with by Product (Cap: 500 TCD)
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      SUGARCANE PLANTATION AND SUGAR MILL WITH BY PRODUCT (CAP: 500 TCD) 

       [EIRI/EDPR/4702] J.C.: 2921XL


      INTRODUCTION

      In general sugarcane grows well in well drained, medium loam soil which is neither too acidic nor too alkaline, though cane is grown in the pH range 4.5 to 8.5. In sandy loam soil, incorporation of organic matter is necessary as also additional irrigation. If the soil is clayey, more care is necessary in cultivation. The soil should preferably be deep. Sugarcane can grow in low lands, provided water logging does not persist for a long period and the variety grown is tolerant to the situation.

      It is best to grow sugarcane on a 3-year rotation - plant crop, first ratoon, second ratoon and cereal, leguminous/green manure crop. It is important that the organic matter and the nitrogen content of the soil is maintained properly. The practice of green manuring, as followed in Australia, is important. If possible the green manure crop should be grown separately and ploughed in at the appropriate time. If this is not feasible, the green manure crop should be taken as an inter crop by sowing along with the planting of sugarcane or a little earlier.

      Characteristics of Sugar Cane:

      Sugar Canes types selected for Commercial Cultivation should have certain general. Characteristics such as good germinability to ensure good stands, a deep root system, moderate but not too heavy tailoring for a fair measure of uniformity in development and maturity of Canes and moderate height to prevent loss by lodging some of the objective of sugarcane breeding in India are high yielding high sucrose varieties suited to various agro climatic regions of the Country; early, mid season and late maturing types to extend the crushing season; varieties responsive to high Nitrogen fertilization with determent to quality.

      Area and Production of Sugar Cane:

      Sugar Cane is the main sources of Sugar in the world, the Sugarcane Crop accounting for 56 per cent of the total world production of Sugar. Sugar Cane cultivation being confined to tropical and Sub tropical Zones Brazil and Cuba are the three largest Cane growing Countries from the point of area under the crop, with each of them growing the Cane Crop annually oner a million hectares or more and accounting among themselves for almost half of the world area under this crop.

      Climate & Season:

      Sugarcane cultivation is restricted to a belt lying between 35o N and S of equator. It is essentially a tropical crop that requires a long summer growing season with adequate rainfall and a fairly dry, sunny and cool but frost free ripening and harvesting season.

      Sugar Cane is generally planted in the spring and harvested at the age of 10 - 12 months in most of the Countries. In India most of the Sugar Cane is planted early in the spring i.e. January to March.

      Soil: Sugar Cane is grown under varied soil Condition in India. The Cane growing soils in India are classified into three major group viz alluvial, black and mud soil.

      Sugar is a universal sweetening agent and sugar - cane is the primary age - old source of it. Sugar cane is a very important industrial crop, accounting for about 60% of sugar production in the world.

      From the times immemorial the word "sugar" is being used variously  to express delight as well as distrust  sarcastically. Sugar has  been used in human diet  through the functions of pancreas, depending  on the quantity of sugar consumed. It is must for human diet when taken directly or indirectly through various carbohydrate containing food stuffs.

      Sugar as sucrose is important for energy and metabolic activities.


      COST ESTIMATION

      Plant Capacity            40,000 Kg./Day

      Land & Building (4500 Acres)    Rs. 25.01 Cr

      Plant & Machinery                    Rs. 31.30 Cr

      Working Capital for 2 Months    Rs. 8.07 Cr

      Total Capital Investment          Rs. 68.14 Cr

      Rate of Return                          33%

      Break Even Point                      56%


      CONTENTS

      INTRODUCTION

      CHARACTERISTICS OF SUGAR CANE:

      AREA AND PRODUCTION OF SUGAR CANE:

      CLIMATE & SEASON:

      PROPERTIES OF SUGAR

      RAW SUGAR:-

      CUBE SUGAR:-

      ICING SUGAR:-

      LIQUID SUGAR:-

      UTILISATION OF BY-PRODUCTS:-

      BAGASSE AS RAW MATERIAL FOR PAPER AND BOARDS:

      USES & APPLICATION

      GUIDELINES FOR SUGARCANE PLANTATION

      LAND PREPARATION

      PLOUGHING

      HARROWING

      LEVELLING

      LAY OUT OF FIELD

      BASAL APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURE AND FERTILIZER

      MAIN FIELD PREPARATION AND TRANSPLANTING

      INTERCULTURAL OPERATIONS

      TRASH MULCHING

      CROP ROTATION

      GAP FILLING

      EARTHING UP

      CONTROL/REGULATION OF FLOWERING IN SUGARCANE

      DETRASHING

      PROPPING

      REMOVAL OF WATER SHOOTS

      COVERING THE FIELD WITH GREEN LEAF MANURE PLANTS

      PIT METHOD OF SUGARCANE UNDER DRIP FERTIGATION SYSTEM

      WEED MANAGEMENT IN PURE CROP OF SUGARCANE

      RAW MATERIALS

      SUGARCANE:-

      LIME STONE:-

      COKE:-

      SULPHUR:-

      SUPERPHOSPHATE:-

      SODIUM HYDROSULPHITE:-

      FLOCUULENTS:-

      FILTER CLOTH:-

      GUNNY BAGS:-

      QUALITY CONTROL AND SPECIFICATIONS

      SEQUENCES IN SUGAR MANUFACTURE

      SUGAR

      EXTRACTION OF JUICE

      CLARIFICATION

      EVAPORATION

      CENTRIFUGATION

      GRADATION & PACKING

      SUGAR MANUFACTURING PROCESS

      FLOWCHART SUGAR MANUFACTURING PROCESS

      CO-GENERATION

      SCHEMATIC OF COGENERATION PROCESS

      MARKET OVERVIEW OF SUGAR IN TANZANIA

      TANZANIA CAN BECOME AFRICA’S HUB FOR SUGAR

      BEGIN WITH RECENT DEVELOPMENT

      FOCUS ON INDUSTRIAL SUGAR

      SUPPORTIVE POLICIES

      SUGAR PRODUCERS

      ONGOING DEVELOPMENTS

      CURRENT PLAYERS

      DETAILS OF SUGAR CANE PLANTATION

      PREPARATORY CULTIVATION:

      SEED RATE, TIME OF PLANTING AND SPACING:

      HOEING AND WEED CONTROL:

      IRRIGATION:

      LODGING:

      PROCESS FLOW SHEET

      MANUFACTURING PROCESS FOLLOWED IN SUGAR INDUSTRY

      STEPS IN SUGAR MANUFACTURE

      MILLING:

      CLARIFICATION:

      EVAPORATION:

      CRYSTALLIZATION:

      SEPARATION:

      REFINEMENT:

      DRYING:

      PACKING:

      PROCESS OF MANUFACTURE

      JUICE EXTRACTION

      CLARIFICATION:-

      EVAPORATION:-

      CRYSTALLIZATION:-

      CENTRIFUGATION:-

      DRYING:-

      DRYING OF SUGAR:-

      DRYING OF SUGARS AND THEIR IMPORTANCE ON KEEPING QUALITY:-

      DETAILED PROCESS DESCRIPTION IS SUGAR MANUFACTURE

      PROCESS DESCRIPTION

      CANE SUGAR PRODUCTION -

      FIGURE SIMPLIFIED PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM FOR CANE SUGAR PRODUCTION.

      REFINED SUGAR PRODUCTION -

      FIGURE SIMPLIFIED PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM FOR REFINED SUGAR PRODUCTION.

      BY-PRODUCTS OF SUGAR INDUSTRY

      THE BY-PRODUCTS OF SUGAR INDUSTRY ARE:

      BAGASSE:-

      MOLASSES:-

      FILTER CAKE:-

      SUGARCANE WAX:-

      BYE PRODUCTS OF THE SUGAR INDUSTRY

      BAGASSE:-

      CHEMICALS:-

      MOLASSES:-

      ALCOHOL BY PRODUCTS AND DERIVATIVES:

      FILTER MUD:

      SUPPLIERS OF PLANT AND MACHINERY (GLOBAL)

      ADDRESSES OF PLANT AND MACHINERY SUPPLIERS

      SUPPLIERS OF RAW MATERIALS

      QUICK LIME

      SODA ASH

      HYDROCHLORIC ACID

      SULPHURIC ACID

      SODIUM HYDROSULPHITE

      SUPER PHOSPHATE


      APPENDIX – A:

      01. PLANT ECONOMICS

      02. LAND & BUILDING

      03. PLANT AND MACHINERY

      04. OTHER FIXED ASSESTS

      05. FIXED CAPITAL

      06. RAW MATERIAL

      07. SALARY AND WAGES

      08. UTILITIES AND OVERHEADS

      09. TOTAL WORKING CAPITAL

      10. TOTAL CAPITAL INVESTMENT

      11. COST OF PRODUCTION

      12. TURN OVER/ANNUM

      13. BREAK EVEN POINT

      14. RESOURCES FOR FINANCE

      15. INSTALMENT PAYABLE IN 5 YEARS

      16. DEPRECIATION CHART FOR 5 YEARS

      17. PROFIT ANALYSIS FOR 5 YEARS

      18. PROJECTED BALANCE SHEET FOR (5 YEARS)

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