The steel industry plays a pivotal role in driving global infrastructure development, and within it, MS ingots serve as fundamental building blocks. From towering skyscrapers to intricate machinery, MS ingots form the backbone of numerous construction and manufacturing projects worldwide. In this article, we delve into the intricacies of the MS ingot business, exploring its composition, manufacturing process, and diverse product offerings, including TMT bars, angles, channels, and rounds.

MS (Mild Steel) ingots, also known as billets, are semi-finished steel products obtained through the casting of molten steel into molds. They serve as raw material for various downstream steel products, undergoing further processing and shaping to meet specific industry requirements. MS ingots boast excellent strength, durability, and versatility, making them indispensable in construction, infrastructure, and manufacturing sectors.

Manufacturing Process:

The production of MS ingots begins with the melting of scrap steel in electric arc furnaces or induction furnaces, supplemented with ferroalloys and fluxes to achieve the desired chemical composition. Once molten steel reaches the required temperature and consistency, it is poured into ingot molds and allowed to solidify. The resulting ingots undergo secondary processing, including hot rolling or forging, to shape them into final products such as TMT bars, angles, channels, and rounds.

The manufacturing process of MS (Mild Steel) ingots involves several steps, starting from the melting of scrap steel to the casting of molten metal into molds. Here's a detailed explanation of each stage:

Collection and Preparation of Raw Materials:

The manufacturing process begins with the collection of scrap steel, which may include recycled steel from various sources such as industrial waste, old machinery, and demolished structures. The collected scrap steel undergoes sorting, cleaning, and segregation to remove impurities such as dirt, rust, and non-metallic contaminants.

Melting of Scrap Steel:

The cleaned and segregated scrap steel is then charged into electric arc furnaces (EAF) or induction furnaces for melting. In electric arc furnaces, an electric arc is generated between graphite electrodes and the scrap steel, heating the material to its melting point. In induction furnaces, electromagnetic induction is used to generate heat within the steel charge, melting it efficiently.

Adjustment of Chemical Composition:

During the melting process, alloying elements such as ferroalloys (e.g., ferromanganese, ferrosilicon) and fluxes (e.g., limestone, dolomite) may be added to adjust the chemical composition of the molten steel. These additions help achieve the desired properties, such as strength, ductility, and corrosion resistance, in the final MS ingots.

Refining and Degassing:

The molten steel undergoes refining processes to remove impurities and gases that can adversely affect the quality of the ingots. Techniques such as ladle refining, vacuum degassing, and argon stirring are employed to remove oxygen, hydrogen, sulfur, and other undesirable elements from the molten metal.

Casting into Ingot Molds:

Once the molten steel reaches the desired chemical composition and cleanliness, it is poured into ingot molds for solidification. The ingot molds, typically made of cast iron or steel, are preheated and coated with a refractory lining to prevent sticking and ensure smooth casting. As the molten steel cools and solidifies within the molds, it takes on the shape and dimensions of the ingot.

Solidification and Cooling:

After casting, the filled ingot molds are allowed to cool and solidify gradually. Controlled cooling rates are essential to prevent internal defects such as segregation, shrinkage, and cracking in the ingots. Water-cooled copper plates or air cooling systems may be used to facilitate rapid and uniform cooling of the ingots.

Removal of Ingot from Molds:

Once the ingots have sufficiently solidified and cooled, they are removed from the molds using mechanical or hydraulic extraction systems. Careful handling is required to prevent damage to the ingots and ensure their dimensional accuracy.

Finishing Operations:

After extraction from the molds, the MS ingots undergo secondary processing operations to remove surface defects, scale, and surface oxidation. Techniques such as shot blasting, grinding, and pickling may be employed to achieve the desired surface finish and cleanliness of the ingots.

Quality Control and Testing:

Finally, the finished MS ingots undergo rigorous quality control and testing procedures to ensure compliance with industry standards and customer specifications. Mechanical testing, chemical analysis, ultrasonic inspection, and visual examination are some of the common methods used to assess the quality and integrity of the ingots.

By following these steps meticulously, manufacturers produce high-quality MS ingots that serve as essential raw materials for various downstream applications in the steel industry.

Usage and Applications:

TMT Bars:

TMT (Thermo-Mechanically Treated) bars are high-strength reinforcement bars widely used in construction projects, including buildings, bridges, dams, and highways. Their unique manufacturing process involves quenching and self-tempering, imparting superior strength, ductility, and corrosion resistance.

Applications: TMT bars serve as structural reinforcements in concrete structures, ensuring structural integrity and safety against seismic forces and environmental degradation.


MS angle bars, also known as L-shaped bars, find applications in structural framing, fabrication, and support systems. They offer excellent load-bearing capacity and versatility, making them suitable for a wide range of construction and engineering projects.

Applications: Angles are used in construction frameworks, bracing systems, fabrication of trusses, frames, and support structures in buildings, bridges, and industrial facilities.


MS channels, characterized by their distinctive U-shaped cross-section, are essential components in structural steelwork and support systems. They provide structural stability, support heavy loads, and facilitate efficient distribution of forces in construction and industrial applications.

Applications: Channels are utilized in building frames, roof trusses, conveyor systems, support beams, and equipment racks across diverse industries.


MS round bars, with their circular cross-section, offer versatility and durability in various mechanical and structural applications. They are commonly used as shafts, axles, spindles, and components in machinery, automotive, and construction sectors.

Applications: Rounds find usage in machinery manufacturing, construction reinforcement, fasteners, shafts, and axles, owing to their high strength, machinability, and weldability.

Types of MS Ingots:

MS ingots come in different grades and specifications to cater to diverse industry requirements. Some common types include:

  1. Prime MS Ingots: Produced from high-quality raw materials and stringent manufacturing processes, prime MS ingots offer superior mechanical properties and surface finish, making them ideal for critical applications in construction and engineering.

  2. Non-Prime MS Ingots: Non-prime ingots may exhibit variations in chemical composition, surface quality, or dimensional accuracy, suitable for non-critical applications such as non-structural components and secondary manufacturing processes.

  3. Alloyed MS Ingots: Alloyed ingots are formulated by adding alloying elements such as chromium, nickel, or manganese to enhance specific properties such as corrosion resistance, hardness, or heat resistance, catering to specialized industrial applications.

India's Steel Ingots Market Expands Amidst Rising Demand

The MS ingot business is influenced by various factors, including infrastructure development, construction activities, industrialization, and economic growth. Rapid urbanization, increasing investments in infrastructure projects, and technological advancements drive demand for MS ingots and downstream steel products. Moreover, evolving regulatory standards, environmental concerns, and fluctuating raw material prices pose challenges and opportunities for industry players.

India's steel ingots market has witnessed a steady growth trajectory, driven by robust demand from key sectors like construction, infrastructure development, and automotive manufacturing. With the total market size estimated at around Rs 42.33 billion (~USD 604.71 million) in 2022, the industry has experienced significant expansion, boasting a remarkable Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of approximately 15% between 2022 and 2032. This growth can be attributed to a confluence of factors, including increased investments in infrastructure projects, the government's focus on smart cities initiatives, and the ambitious expansion plans of major industry players like SAIL and Tata Steel.

Indian MS Ingot Market Drivers:

Rising Demand for Raw Materials:

The steel ingots market in India is primarily driven by the escalating demand for raw materials in the steel manufacturing sector. Steel ingots serve as vital intermediate products used in the production of various steel components and products. As industries such as construction, automotive, and manufacturing witness sustained growth, the demand for steel ingots continues to surge, reflecting the overall strength of the domestic steel market.

Growth in End-User Industries:

The increasing consumption of steel across key end-user industries further propels the demand for steel ingots. In sectors like construction and infrastructure development, steel ingots are indispensable for manufacturing structural components, reinforcing bars, and other essential materials. Similarly, the automotive industry relies heavily on steel ingots for the production of vehicle components, driving significant demand within the market.

Government Initiatives and Policy Support:

Government initiatives aimed at boosting domestic steel production have provided a significant impetus to the steel ingots market. Policies promoting the 'Make in India' initiative, coupled with efforts to enhance infrastructure and manufacturing capabilities, have fostered a conducive environment for the growth of the steel industry. Moreover, initiatives like the development of smart cities have led to increased investments in construction projects, further fueling demand for steel ingots.

Adoption of Electric Arc Furnaces (EAFs):

The increasing adoption of electric arc furnaces for steelmaking has also contributed to the growth of the steel ingots market. EAFs offer several advantages over traditional blast furnaces, including lower energy consumption, reduced emissions, and greater flexibility in steel production. As steel manufacturers transition towards more sustainable and efficient production methods, the demand for steel ingots produced through electric arc furnaces is expected to rise.

Market Outlook:

The outlook for India's steel ingots market remains optimistic, driven by sustained demand from key sectors and supportive government policies. With ongoing investments in infrastructure projects and the expansion plans of major industry players, the market is poised for further growth in the coming years. Additionally, advancements in technology and the adoption of innovative production methods are expected to enhance the efficiency and competitiveness of the steel ingots market, positioning it for continued success in the global steel industry landscape.

India's steel ingots market continues to thrive amidst a backdrop of robust demand and favorable market dynamics. With strong growth drivers in place, including rising demand from end-user industries, government support, and technological advancements, the market presents lucrative opportunities for industry stakeholders. By capitalizing on these opportunities and leveraging innovative approaches, India's steel ingots market is poised to achieve sustained growth and contribute significantly to the nation's economic development.


The MS ingot business plays a pivotal role in the global steel industry, supplying essential raw materials for construction, infrastructure, and manufacturing sectors. From TMT bars reinforcing concrete structures to angles supporting building frameworks, MS ingots form the backbone of diverse applications. Understanding the composition, manufacturing process, and product offerings of MS ingots is essential for stakeholders in the steel industry to navigate market dynamics and capitalize on emerging opportunities for growth and innovation.