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    Complete Technology Handbook on Industrial Gases with Manufacturing Process, Machinery Equipments and Project Profiles

    Complete Technology Handbook on Industrial Gases with Manufacturing Process, Machinery Equipments and Project Profiles
    Complete Technology Handbook on Industrial Gases with Manufacturing Process, Machinery Equipments and Project Profiles
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      Welcome to the "Complete Technology Handbook on Industrial Gases with Manufacturing Process, Machinery Equipments and Project Profiles". This comprehensive guide delves into the fascinating world of industrial gases, offering a detailed exploration of their production processes, machinery, equipment, and project profiles. Whether you're an entrepreneur seeking opportunities in the industrial gas sector, a manufacturer looking to expand your operations, or simply curious about the essential role of these gases in various industries, this book is your definitive resource.

      In this handbook, we navigate through the complexities of industrial gases, providing you with in-depth knowledge about their manufacturing methods, applications across diverse industries, and the machinery and equipment involved in their production. The content is thoughtfully organized to help you grasp the intricacies of this vital field.

      Our primary aim is to equip you with a comprehensive understanding of industrial gases, from their origins to their manifold applications. Whether you are interested in the intricacies of gas separation, the uses of different industrial gases, or the economic aspects of gas production, you will find it all here.

      What You'll Discover:

      • Detailed Manufacturing Processes: Explore the intricacies of gas production, including technologies such as cryogenic distillation, fractional distillation, electrolysis, and more.
      • Machinery and Equipment: Gain insights into the machinery and equipment used in gas production, from air separation units to purification systems.
      • Industrial Gas Applications: Learn about the wide-ranging applications of industrial gases in sectors such as metallurgy, healthcare, energy production, and beyond.
      • Project Profiles: Discover valuable project profiles that offer insights into setting up your own gas production facilities.

      Whether you're an industry professional, an aspiring entrepreneur, or a student of chemical engineering, this guide is designed to cater to your needs. You can delve into specific chapters that pique your interest, or you can explore the entire book to gain a comprehensive overview of the industrial gas landscape. The chapters are systematically organized to facilitate easy navigation and reference.

      We hope this handbook serves as an invaluable companion on your journey through the intricate world of industrial gases. May it inspire innovation, fuel curiosity, and empower you to harness the potential of these gases in diverse applications. Together, let's embark on this enlightening exploration of industrial gases and their profound impact on our modern world.

      The book contains chapters on Industrial Gases - Introduction, Different Types of Industrial Gases and its Uses, Acetylene Gas, Ozone Gas, Air Gases Technology viz Nitrogen, Oxygen and Argon, Noble Gases Technology viz Neon, Krypton and Xenon, The Noble Gas Helium, Technology of Synthesis Gases viz. Hydrogen and Carbon Monoxide, Carbon Dioxide Gas Technology, Natural Gas and Technology, Fuel Gases Technology, Special Gases, Gases Applications in Medicine, Air Separation Technology, Front-End Purification Systems, Industrial Processes of Gas, Photographs of Plant and Machinery, Manufacture of Pure Gases, Plants and Machinery, Plant Economics of Dissolved Acetylene Gas and Bottling Plant of Industrial Compressed Oxygen, Medical Oxygen, Argon, CO2 and Nitrogen, Plant Economics of Hydrogen Production (99.9% Pure) and Oxygen as By-Product, Plant Economics of Industrial Gases Bottling Plant with Various Gas Mixtures, Plant Economics of Liquid Oxygen Bottling Plant, Plant Economics of Oxygen Plant [Cryogenic] Air Separation Method, Plant Economics of Small Oxygen Plant.

      Chapter 1

      Industrial Gases - Introduction

      What defines an industrial gas

      Which gases are classified as industrial?

      Gas processing and LNG

      Gas processing 

      Gas production technology 


      Other common industrial gases 

      Important liquefied gases 

      Industrial gas applications 

      Chapter 2

      Different Types of Industrial Gases and its Uses

      Industrial Gases: Details 

      Examples of industries concerned 


      Contents-cum-Index Nitrogen

      Food Packaging 

      Light Bulb Production 

      Chemical Plants

      Tire Inflation 


      Stainless Steel Manufacturing 

      Pollution Control 



      BTP – Construction  

      Inert gases, what gases are and what they are used for?  

      Active gases, what gases are and what they are used for? 

      Argon industrial gas 

      Carbon dioxide industrial gas

      Oxygen Industrial gas 



      Oxidizer Process Description 

      Flammable Gases 










      Inert Gases 

      Characteristic of Noble gas 

      Atomic radii 

      Ionization enthalpy 

      Electron gain enthalpy 

      Applications of Inert Gases 







      Industrial Gases - Supply Chain 

      Production process 

      Air extraction 

      Pressure management 

      Gas compression and expansion 

      Gas laws 

      Effect of pressure 

      Liquefaction of Gases

      Combustion or burning 

      The Fuel gases  


      Acetylene C2H2 

      Compressed gases and safety

      Compressed gas cylinders 

      Dissolved Acetylene 



      Precautions in handling compressed gases 



      Nitrous Oxide 

      Carbon Dioxide 

      Carbon Monoxide 


      Dissolved Acetylene 


      Joining metals 




      Braze welding 

      Failure of adhesion 

      Chapter 3

      Acetylene Gas 


      Vapor Density 

      Vapor Pressure 

      Toxicity Data  

      Major Hazards 

      Properties of Acetylene –C2H2 

      Acetylene Uses 

      Production of Acetylene 

      Health Hazards 


      Flammability and Explosibility 

      Reactivity and Incompatibility 

      Storage and Handling 



      Chapter 4

      Ozone Gas

      Ozone Layer Depletion 

      What is Ozone Layer Depletion?

      Causes of Ozone Layer Depletion 


      Unregulated Rocket Launches 

      Nitrogenous Compounds

      Natural Causes 

      Effects of Ozone Layer Depletion 

      Effects on Human Health 

      Effects on Animals 

      Effects on the Environment 

      Effects on Marine Life 

      Solutions to Ozone Layer Depletion 

      Avoid Using ODS 

      Minimise the Use of Vehicles 

      Use Eco-friendly Cleaning Products 

      Use of Nitrous Oxide should be Prohibited 

      Ozone location 

      Ozone abundance 

      Ozone Gas-Generating Equipment 

      Ozone Generator Rooms 

      Piping, Valves, and Fittings 

      Secondary Containment 



      Automatic Shutdown 

      Manual Shutdown 

      How are people exposed to ozone? 

      How does ozone react in the respiratory tract? 

      What are ozone’s acute physiological and symptom effects? 

      What effects does ozone have at the cellular level? 

      How does response vary among individuals? 

      Chapter 5

      Air Gases Technology viz Nitrogen, Oxygen and Argon

      Components of air 



      Carbon dioxide 

      Smoke and dust particles 

      Composition of Air 

      Main Components of Air 


      Carbon Dioxide 



      Water Vapour

      Dust Particles 

      Nitrogen, Argon & Oxygen Gas Uses In Metallurgy Engineering




      Chapter 6

      Noble Gases Technology viz Neon, Krypton and Xenon

      Members of the Inert Gas Family

      Non-Metallic Behaviour of Inert Gases

      Uses of Noble Gases

      How were the Inert Gases Discovered?


      Physical Properties

      Chemical Properties of Neon

      Uses of Neon 


      Element Properties 

      Properties of the element


      Uses of Krypton




      Chemical Properties of Xenon 

      Physical properties of Xenon 

      Applications and effects of Xenon 

      Optics and illumination  


      Interesting Facts about Xenon 



      Health effects of xenon 

      Effects of xenon on the environment 

      Chapter 7

      The Noble Gas Helium 

      Element Properties 

      Abundance and isotopes 


      Production and uses 

      Helium Gas Cryogenic Purifiers 

      ExtractionHydrogen Gas Cryogenic Purifiers 

      Product Highlights: 

      Why get your purifier from AET? 

      Examples uses of High-Grade Helium Gas 

      Chapter 8

      Technology of Synthesis Gases viz. Hydrogen and Carbon Monoxide

      Steam Methane Reforming (SMR) 


      Cold Box 

      Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) Unit 

      Auto Thermal Reformer (ATR) 


      Cold Box 

      Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) Unit 

      Gasification (E-Gas™ and E-Gas Plus®) 



      Combustion 0:29



      Electron energy levels 

      Spin isomers 

      Ortho-hydrogen and parahydrogen 

      Reactivity of hydrogen 

      Hydrogen bond 

      Isotopes of hydrogen 

      Production and applications of hydrogen 


      Carbon Monoxide 

      Sources of Carbon Monoxide 

      Health Effects Associated with Carbon Monoxide 

      Chapter 9

      Carbon Dioxide Gas Technology 

      Chemical and physical properties  

      Carbon Cycle 

      The Primary Sources of CO2 

      Natural CO2 Sources 

      Anthropogenic CO2 Sources 

      Technology of Carbon Dioxide Separation from Flue Gases 

      CO2 Separation Technologies 



      Different Cycles for CO2 Adsorption 

      Cryogenic Distillation 

      Membrane Separation 

      Inorganic Membranes 

      Polymeric Membranes 

      Mixed Matrix Membranes 

      Hollow Fiber Membrane 

      Chapter 10

      Natural Gas and Technology 

      Advances in the Exploration and Production Sector 

      Offshore Production – NASA of the Sea 

      Liquefied Natural Gas 

      LNG Delivery Facility with Tanker 

      Natural Gas Fuel Cells 

      How a Fuel Cell Works 

      Natural Gas Technology Resources 

      Natural Gas Technologies R&D 

      Future trends in natural gas technology 

      Intelligent Utility Distribution Networks 

      Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)

      Zero-Emissions Power Plants 

      Benefits, Uses, Importance, Limitations 

      Natural Gas Benefits 

      Natural Gas Importance 

      Natural Gas Usage Limitations 

      Chemical Composition of Natural Gas 


      Olefin hydrocarbons 

      Cyclic or Ring Hydrocarbons 




      Chapter 11

      Fuel Gases Technology 


      Manufactured fuel gas 

      Well or mine extracted fuel gases 


      Decantation Management System work


      Stationary Fuel Tank Management System 


      High-Speed Bowser Fuel & Fastfill System for Efficient Refueling 


      Mobile Fuel Management - Never Run Out of Fuel 

      Need for Mobile Fuel Management System 

      How does Mobile Fuel Management System work? 


      Turnkey Fuel Management 

      Need for Turnkey Fuel Management Solution 

      How does a Turnkey Fuel Management System work?


      Chapter 12

      Special Gases 


      Sources of hydrogen 

      Recovery of Hydrogen 

      Hydrogen use in petroleum refineries 

      Refinery in-house recovery of hydrogen 

      Recovery from coke oven gas 

      Hydrogen generation plants 

      Electrolysis of Water 

      Thermal Cracking of Ammonia 

      Treatment of Hydro carbon Feedstock for Hydrogen Recovery 

      Small Steam Reforming Plants 

      (a) Reform ing stage 

      (b) Shift stage 

      Large Hydrogen Generation Plants 

      Synthesis Gas, Partial Oxidation 


      Partial Oxidation Process 

      Ammonia Synthesis 

      Hydrogen Recovery from Ammonia Synthesis Plants

      Other Uses for Synthesis Gas

      Fuel Cells 

      Carbon Monoxide 


      Carbon Monoxide Recovery 


      General process of recovery 

      Basic Cryogenic Recovery Processes 

      Methane Wash Cryogenic Recovery 

      Compression and conversion machinery for carbon monoxide

      Requirements for a Liquid CO Pump

      Safety of LCO Transport 

      Safety equipment in general 

      High-purity nitrogen 

      General characteristics 


      Applications for inertness

      Nitrogen as a Preservative

      Nitrogen as an Emissions Controller 

      Nitrogen Use in Sparging

      Nitrogen for Pressure Transferring

      Liquid Nitrogen for Vapor Recovery 

      Liquid Nitrogen Makes Worn Rubber Tires Profitable

      Process and equipment options 

      Cryogenic Process Cycle

      Permeable Membrane Separation Process 

      Pressure Swing Adsorption 

      Ultrahigh-purity nitrogen 

      Removal of Outside Impurities 

      Chapter 13

      Gases Applications in Medicine


      Oxygen (O2) 

      Storage and transport of liquid nitrous oxide 

      Uses in Respiratory Care 


      Carbon Dioxide

      Uses in Respiratory Care 



      Uses in Respiratory Care 


      Compressed Air 

      Uses in Respiratory Care 



      Uses in Respiratory Care


      Nitric Oxide 

      Uses in Respiratory Care


      Nitrous oxide (N2o) 

      Uses in Respiratory Care  


      Medical air 4 bar

      Medical air 7bar 

      Medical vacuum 

      System components


      Bulky systems 

      Manifold systems 

      Medical air treatment systems

      Vacuum pumps 

      Piping networks


      Warning and alarm systems 

      Outlets and inlets 

      Secondary equipment 

      Design principles

      Design keys 

      Number of stations 

      Flow rates


      Storage and transport of liquid oxygen 

      Storage and transport of liquid nitrous oxide

      Chapter 14

      Air Separation Technology

      Air Separation Overview

      Basic Air Separation Unit (ASU) Components 

      Main Air Compressor (MAC)

      Front End Clean Up



      Liquid Argon System 

      Different Types of Air Separation Units (ASU)

      All gaseous product 

      Linde’s first fractionation machine 

      Distillation and Fractionation




      Theoretical considerations of fractionation

      Evaporation and Condensation

      Separation Techniques: Obtaining Gases from Air

      Step 1:Conversion of air into liquid air

      Step 2:Fractional Distillation 

      Cryogenic Process of Air Separation

      Steps in the cryogenic process of air separation 

      Production of argon 

      Production of liquid products 

      Chapter 15

      Front-End Purification Systems 

      Processes and materials used in front-end purification systems 

      Original Prepurification 



      Introduction of Activated Alumina 

      Activated Alumina 

      Regeneration of Activated Alumina 

      Zeolites (Molecular Sieves) 

      Chemical Formula 

      Types of Molecular Sieves 

      Silica Gel 

      Design of current front-end purification systems 

      General Background 

      Equipment Used 

      Precooling Units Upstream of Adsorption 

      Direct Contact Aftercooler 

      Evaporative Water Chiller 

      Mech anical Refrigerat ion Unit 

      Adsorber Unit 

      Standard Design 

      Multiple Vertical Vessels 

      Horizontal Vessels 

      Radial or Concentric Design

      Process Operation 

      Isolation Valve Downstream of FEP 

      Adsorption Kinetics

      Regeneration Concerns 

      Warning Against Excessive Heat During Regeneration 

      High-Pressure Vessel Regeneration 

      Regeneration Options For FEP Units 


      Chapter 16

      Industrial Processes of Gas


      Industrial processes in Gas Processing Centers 



      Sulfur recovery 

      Residual gas cleaning


      Gas sweetening 

      Liquid sweetening 

      Sulfur recovery 

      Cryogenic process 

      Absorption process 


      Nitrogen Rejection Unit (NRU) 

      Chapter 17

      Photographs of Plant and Machinery  

      Acetylene Production Plant 

      Advantages of our acetylene plant 

      Air Separation Gas Plant 

      Main Features 

      Main equipments of oxygen gas plant 

      Reactor equipment 

      Types of Reactors 

      Batch Reactor 

      Continuous reactors 

      Types of continuous reactors 

      Continuous stirred-tank reactor model (CSTR) 

      Continuous tubular reactor or Plug flow reactor model (PFR)

      Fixed bed reactors 

      Semibatch reactor 

      Tubular furnace 

      Boiler Equipment 

      Auxiliary equipment 

      Pumping equipment 

      Types of pumps 

      Centrifugal pumps 

      Oil pumps

      Positive displacement pumps

      Oil transfer pumps 

      Diaphragm pumps

      Thight Electric pumps

      Petrochemical pumps

      Pipeline connecting Accessories 

      Non-return valves for oil and gas pipelines 

      Types of check valves 

      Diaphragm check valve 

      Stop check valve

      Lift check valve 

      In-line check valve

      Shut off and control valves 

      Dust collectors 

      Water Treatment and Purification before disposal 

      Chapter 18

      Manufacture of Pure Gases

      What are Pure Gases? 

      Examples of pure gases


      Applications of Acetylene 

      Production of Acetylene 


      Manufacture of Oxygen 

      Generation of Oxygen through Photosynthesis 

      Generation of Oxygen through Cryogenic Distillation Method 


      Heat Transfer and Cooling the Air 

      Air Distillation 

      Coal Gas

      Development or Production of Coal Oil and Gas 

      Manufacturing Process 

      Industrial Use of Coal Gas

      Domestic Heating 

      Chapter 19

      Plants and Machinery

      Oxygen Cylinder Filling Plant 

      Usage in the Industry 

      Uses in Medicine and Health 

      Oxygen Filling Plant Specifications 

      Plant Design 

      CO2 Purification & Liquefaction Process

      Vacuum Insulated Cryogenic Storage Tank


      Other Details 


      PSA Nitrogen Gas Plants

      Salient Features


      Chapter 20

      Plant Economics of Dissolved Acetylene Gas And Bottling Plant of Industrial Compressed Oxygen, Medical Oxygen, Argon, CO2 and Nitrogen

      Process Description of DA [Dissolved Acetylene] Gas

      Operation condition: site condition

      Technical details of acetylene manufacture 

      Chemical Reaction and Raw Materials 

      Process of manufacture of acetylene

      Raw Material Requirements

      Process Description

      Wet Process

      Dry Process

      Equipment Used

      Purity, Yield Storage

      Process of compressed gas bottling plant

      Plant Economics

      Land & Building

      Plant & Machinery

      Fixed Capital

      Working Capital Requirement/Month

      Total Capital Investment

      Turn Over/Annum

      Chapter 21

      Plant Economics of Hydrogen Production (99.9% Pure) and Oxygen as By-Product


      Details of Electrolysis for Hydrogen Production

      Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Electrolyzers

      Alkaline Electrolyzers

      Solid Oxide Electrolyzers

      Production of hydrogen using different feed stock

      Hydrogen from fossil fuels

      Production from natural gas

      Production from coal

      Hydrogen from Splitting of Water

      Water electrolysis

      Alkaline Electrolysis

      Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) electrolysis

      High-temperature electrolysis

      Photo-electrolysis (photolysis)

      Photo-biological production (biophotolysis)

      High-temperature decomposition

      Thermo-chemical water splitting

      Electrolysis for H2 production

      Alkaline Water Electrolysis

      Alkaline water electrolyser

      Inside a water electrolyser

      Alkaline Membrane Cells

      Steam electrolysis at 1000°C

      Plant Economics

      Land & Building

      Plant & Machinery

      Fixed Capital

      Working Capital Requirement/Month

      Total Capital Investment

      Turn Over/Annum

      Chapter 22

      Plant Economics of Industrial Gases Bottling Plant with Various Gas Mixtures

      Process of manufacture of oxygen, carbon dioxide and argon

      Oxygen and nitrogen gas

      Other details of oxygen and nitrogen separation from air




      Liquid Oxygen

      Argon Gas

      Plant Economics

      Land & Building

      Plant & Machinery

      Fixed Capital 

      Working Capital Requirement/Month

      Total Capital Investment

      Turn Over/Annum

      Chapter 23

      Plant Economics of Liquid Oxygen Bottling Plant

      Raw Materials

      Manufacturing Process of Liquid Oxygen

      Liquid Oxygen

      Shipping Methods of Oxygen

      Container’s and Regulation

      Adsorption principle

      Temperature and pressure influence

      Pressure swing adsorption

      Adsorption oxygen plants

      Membrane technology

      Innovation technology available today

      Membrane operation principle

      Membrane cartridge 

      Compressor and vacuum technologies

      Process in Details





      Manufacture of oxygen from high temperature steam


      Plant Economics

      Land & Building

      Plant & Machinery 

      Fixed Capital 

      Working Capital Requirement/Month

      Total Capital Investment 

      Turn Over/Annum 

      Chapter 24

      Plant Economics of Oxygen Plant [Cryogenic] Air Separation Method

      Gas Production Technology

      Fractional distillation of air


      Fractional distillation

      Cylinder Filling

      Plant Economics

      Land & Building

      Plant & Machinery

      Fixed Capital 

      Working Capital Requirement/Month

      Total Capital Investment

      Turn Over/Annum

      Chapter 25

      Plant Economics of Small Oxygen Plant

      Manufacturing process of liquid oxygen

      Liquid Oxygen

      Shipping Methods of Oxygen

      Container’s and Regulation

      Process in details





      Plant Economics

      Land & Building 

      Plant & Machinery

      Fixed Capital

      Working Capital Requirement/Month

      Total Capital Investment

      Turn Over/Annum

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