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    Complete Technology Handbook on Biodegradable and Bioplastics Products like Tableware and Food Containers, Toilet Paper, Cassava Bags, Carry Bags, Biopet and Polylactic Acid with Detailed Manufacturing Process and Project Profiles

    Complete Technology Handbook on Biodegradable and Bioplastics Products like Tableware and Food Containers, Toilet Paper, Cassava Bags, Carry Bags, Biopet and Polylactic Acid with Detailed Manufacturing Process and Project Profiles
    New
    Complete Technology Handbook on Biodegradable and Bioplastics Products like Tableware and Food Containers, Toilet Paper, Cassava Bags, Carry Bags, Biopet and Polylactic Acid with Detailed Manufacturing Process and Project Profiles
    US $ 286.00
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      Complete Technology Handbook on Biodegradable and Bioplastics Products like Tableware and Food Containers, Toilet Paper, Cassava Bags, Carry Bags, Starch and Maize Based Plastics, Drinking Straw, Biopet and Polylactic Acid with Detailed Manufacturing Process and Project Profiles


      ISBN: 9788189765736

      Bioplastics are plastics made from renewable sources like corn starch, vegetable fats and oils, and recovered food waste. Biodegradable products are made from natural resources instead of petroleum, making them eco-friendly alternatives to traditional plastics.

      Bioplastic is simply plastic that is created from a plant or other biological source rather than petroleum. It can be created by extracting sugar from plants like corn and sugarcane and converting it into polylactic acids (PLAs), or it can be made from microorganism-engineered polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). Bioplastics are plastics made from renewable biomass sources such vegetable fats and oils, corn starch, straw, woodchips, sawdust, and recovered food waste, among others. Common plastics, such as fossil-fuel plastics (also known as petro-based polymers), on the other hand, are made from petroleum or natural gas.

      Biodegradable Products Manufacturing (Bio-Products) are all types of natural and artificial products that can be easily decomposed without causing any damage to the environment. The significant examples of Biodegradable Products are Biodegradable Plastic, Biodegradable Airline Meals, Bio-degradable Toilet Paper, Biodegradable Cups etc. It has become the need of the hour to use these products as most of the goods like Plastics take many years to decompose in nature and this affects the environment adversely with time.

      This manual serves as an extensive manual for individuals interested in producing bioplastics and biodegradable items (e.g., compostable bags, plates, cups, etc.). Although the concept of bioplastics has become more popular in recent times, it was not until 1993 that the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development emphasized the necessity for sustainable alternatives to non-renewable materials like plastics.

      The book contains chapters on - Biodegradable Plastics Technology, Biodegradable Plastics - Developments and Enviromental Aspects, Bioplastic Carry Bags Manufacturing Technology, BIO-PET Technology, Bio-Plastic Drinking Straws Technology, Food Packaging Applications, Starch-based, Natural Biopolymers and Foam for Food Packaging Technology, Corn and Rice Starch-based Bio-Plastics Biodegradable Plastics Technology, Bioplastics Processing of Dry Ingredients Technology, Bioplastics Recycling Technology, Cassava Bags Manufacturing Technology, Biodegradable Synthetic Polymers Technology, Biodegradable Plastics from Renewable Sources Technology, Biodegradable Plastics from Wheat Starch and Polylactic Acid (PLA), Starch-based Biodegradable Plastics Manufacturing Technology. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAS) Technology, Polylactic Acid (PLA) Technology, Biodegradable Tableware Manufacturing, Biodegradable Plates Manufacturing, Biodegradable Toilet Paper Manufacturing, Biodegradable Polyolefins Technology, Starch for Packaging Technology, Photographs of Plant and Machinery, Plant Economics of 100% Biodegradable Bioplastic, Plant Economics of Bagasse Tableware [Plates, Glass, Bowl, Food Container Etc.], Plant Economics of Biodegradable Carry Bags and Garbage Bags, Plant Economics of Biodegradable Disposable Tableware (By Using Palm Tree Products), Plant Economics of Bioplastic Production from Natural Carbohydrates e.g. Cassava, Corn, Sago, Banana etc., Plant Economics of Fully Automatic Paper Straw (Eco Friendly) Manufacturing Plant, Plant Economics of Oxo Biodegradable Carry Bags, Plant Economics of Wheat Straw, Corn, Cassava Starch or Bagasse Tableware Manufacturing.


      Chapter 1

      Biodegradable Plastics Technology

      Introduction

      Properties of biodegradable plastics

      Main applications from biodegradable plastics

      Bottles

      Food containers and trays

      The types of biodegradable plastics are:

      Biodegradable Vs. Compostable

      Definition of Biodegradable

      Definition of Compostable

      Biodegradable and Compostable Plastics

      Pros of Biodegradable and Compostable Plastics

      Cons of Biodegradable and Compostable Plastics

      Choosing Biodegradable vs. Compostable Products

      Bio-Based Plastics

      Applications

      Bioplastic Packaging

      Bioplastics for Consumer Electronics

      Food Service

      Medical

      Aerospace and Automotive

      Cosmetics

      Types of bioplastic

      What are the raw materials for bioplastics?

      What are the advantages of bioplastics?

      They use diverse feedstocks

      They have lots of uses

      Renewable Resources

      Biopolymers

      Introduction

      Protein-Based Natural Polymers

      Proteins-Based Natural Polymers from an Animal Resource

      Protein-Based Natural Polymers from Plant Resources

      Polysaccharide-Based Natural Polymers

      Polysaccharide-Based Natural Polymers from an Animal Resource

      Polysaccharide-Based Natural Polymers from Plant Resource

      Lipid-Based Natural Polymers

      Proteins

      Bags for fruit and vegetables

      Garbage bags

      Coffee capsules

      Packaging

      Disposable tableware

      Biogenic Materials

      The Challenges of Biogenic Materials

      Plant Oils

      Monomers

      Natural Monomers

      Amino acids

      Nucleotides

      Glucose and Related Sugars

      Isoprene


      Chapter 2

      Biodegradable Plastics - Developments and Environmental Aspects

      Biodegradable

      The ASTM Definition of ‘Biodegradable’

      ASTM & ISO Definitions on Environmentally Degradable Plastics

      Anaerobic conditions

      Aerobic conditions

      European Union standards

      Aerobic conditions

      Future European standards

      British standards

      Compostable

      Treehugger

      ‘Compostable’ is Defined by the ASTM

      Hydro-biodegradable plastics

      Photo-biodegradable plastics

      Bio-erodable

      Biodegradable Starch-based Polymers

      Starch blending

      Starch/PVA

      Starch/PLA

      Starch/PCL

      Starch/PHB-HV

      Starch/PB Sandstarch/PBSA

      Ternary Blends

      Thermoplastic Starch

      Starch Synthetic Aliphatic Polyester Blends

      Starch PBS/PBSA Polyester Blends

      Starch PVOH Blends

      Cellulose-Based Polymers

      Cellulose Esters

      Biodegradable Polyester Family

      PHA (Naturally Produced) Polyesters

      Developments

      Applications

      Degradation Mechanisms and Properties

      PHBH (Naturally Produced) Polyesters

      Developments

      Applications

      Degradation Mechanisms and Properties

      PLA (Renewable Resource) Polyesters

      Developments

      Applications

      Degradation Mechanisms and Properties

      PCL (Synthetic Aliphatic) Polyesters

      PBS (Synthetic Aliphatic) Polyesters

      Developments

      Applications

      Degradation Mechanisms and Properties

      Modified PET

      Degradation Mechanisms and Properties

      Developments

      Applications

      Other Degradable Polymers

      Water Soluble Polymers

      Vinyl Acetate-Ethylene Copolymer (VAE)

      Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVOH)

      Uses

      Distinctive and Unique Properties

      Processing of PVOH

      Recyclability of PVOH

      The Future Role of PVOH

      Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Emulsions (EVA)

      Features

      Application

      Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC)

      Polyanionic Cellulose (PAC)

      Controlled Degradation Additive Masterbatches

      Definition

      Components

      Polymer Carrier

      Additives

      Benefits of using additive masterbatch

      Precision and consistency

      Cost efficiency

      Customization

      Improved processing

      Enhanced product performance

      Different types of additive masterbatch

      Lubricating additive masterbatch

      Flexible plasticized additive masterbatch

      Stability-enhancing additive masterbatch

      Longevity-boosting plastic anti-aging additives

      Dust-repelling anti-static additive masterbatch

      Fire retardant additives for plastic safety

      Porosity-increasing additives for finished products

      Deodorizing additives for consumer comfort

      Emerging Application Areas of biodegradable plastics

      Coated Paper

      Agricultural Mulch Film

      Shopping Bags

      Food Waste Film and Bags

      Consumer Packaging Materials

      Landfill Cover Film

      Other Applications

      Standards and test methods

      Biodegradation Standards and Tests

      American Society for Testing and Materials

      ASTM D5338-93 (Composting)

      ASTM D5209-91 (Aerobic, Sewer Sludge)

      ASTM D5210-92 (Anaerobic, Sewage Sludge)

      ASTM D5511-94 (High-solids Anaerobic Digestion)

      ASTM Tests for Specific Disposal Environments

      International Standards Research

      International Standards Organisation

      European Committee for Normalisation

      ‘OK Compost’ Certification and Logo

      Compost Toxicity Tests

      Plant Phytotoxicity Testing

      Animal Toxicity Test

      Difference Between Standards for Biodegradation

      Development of Australian Standards

      Disposal Environments

      Composting Facilities and Soil Burial

      Key Factors Defining Compostability

      Physical Persistence

      Chemical Persistence

      Toxicity

      Effect on Quality of Compost

      Anaerobic Digestion

      Waste Water Treatment Plants

      Reprocessing Facilities

      Landfills

      Marine and Freshwater Environments

      Litter

      Plastics Sorting and Reprocessing

      Key Issues

      Recyclable Plastics Sorting Considerations

      Reprocessing Considerations

      Polyolefin Reprocessing 

      Polyethylene Reprocessing

      Potential Positive Environmental Impacts

      Composting

      Landfill Degradation

      Energy Use

      Greenhouse Gas Emissions

      Potential Negative Environmental Impacts

      Pollution of Aquatic Environments

      Increased Aquatic BOD

      Water Transportable Degradation Products

      Risk to Marine Species

      Litter

      Compost Toxicity

      Recalcitrant Residues

      Aromatic Compounds

      Additives and Modifiers

      Isocyanate Coupling Agents

      Plasticisers

      Fillers

      Catalyst Residues

      Prodegradants and Other Additives

      Source of Raw Materials

      Development of Australian Standards and Testing

      Life-Cycle Assessment

      Minimisation of Impact on Reprocessing

      Determination of Appropriate Disposal Environments

      Education


      Chapter 3

      Bioplastic Carry Bags Manufacturing Technology

      Product Description

      Product Uses

      Raw Material Requirement

      Benefits of Starting a Biodegradable Plastic Bag Business

      Types of Biodegradable Plastic Bag

      Advantages of Using Biodegradable Bags

      Manufacturing Process

      Indian Standards For The Product

      Biodegradable Plastic Bags Raw Material

      Plant & Machinery

      License & Approvals

      Bioplastics

      Environmental Impact of Plastic Waste

      Types of Plastics Commonly Used and Their Properties

      Plastic Recycling Overview

      Benefits of Recycling Plastic

      Different Types of Plastic Recycling Processes

      Mechanical recycling

      Chemical recycling

      Feedstock recycling

      Pyrolysis

      Biodegradation

      Challenges of Plastic Recycling

      The plastic recycling process steps

      Collection + distribution

      Sorting + categorizing

      Washing

      Shredding

      Identification and separation of plastics

      Extruding + compounding

      types of plastic

      Number 1: PETE (or PET) – Polyethylene Terephthalate

      Number 2: HDPE – High-Density Polyethylene

      Number 3: PVC – Polyvinyl Chloride

      Number 4: LDPE – Low-Density Polyethylene

      Number 5: PP – Polypropylene

      Number 6: PS – Polystyrene

      Number 7: Other


      Chapter 4

      BIO-PET Technology

      characteristics of Bio-PET

      BioPET as a replacement for Virgin PET

      New developments in PET packaging

      Biodegradable plastics

      Bio-Based Polymers

      Biodegradable Packaging Options: Biopolymers and Bioplastics

      features of Bio-based polyester

      Carbon sequestration

      Reduced greenhouse gas emissions

      More sustainable

      Range of applications

      Promising barrier and mechanical properties

      The Benefits of Biopolymer Bottles

      Biopolymer Bottle Types

      Bottle-to-bottle Recycling

      Development of the “Bottle to Bottle” Horizontal Recycling System

      Adoption of F-to-P direct recycling technology

      “Bottle to Bottle” Horizontal Recycling Progress Through Packaging Improvements

      Washing Line

      Pelletizing

      Continuous SSP


      Chapter 5

      Bio-Plastic Drinking Straws Technology

      Benefits of Switching to Biodegradable Straws

      Types of biodegradable straws

      Paper straws

      PHA straw

      PLA straw

      Reed straws

      Wheat straws

      Cornstarch straws

      Bamboo straw

      Sugarcane Bagasse Straws

      Environmental Benefits of Sugarcane Straws

      Advantages of Sugarcane Straws over Paper 

      Straws

      Not Soggy

      Heat Resistant

      Food Safe

      Technology Process

      Pulp cooking process

      Pulp washing process

      Pulp bleaching process

      Chemi-mechanical pulping process

      Making Eco-Friendly Rice Straws

      Rice straw production process

      Produce rice starch

      Weigh and mix rice starch

      Steam

      Shape

      Dry

      Check the quality and pack

      Biodegradable rice drinking straw processing line manufacturing process

      Biodegradable Sugarcane Straws for Drinks

      Technical Parameters

      Operations:


      Chapter 6

      Food Packaging Applications

      Bio-based Plastics in Food Packaging

      Advantages of Bio-based Food Packaging

      Polymers Produced from Biomass

      Starch

      Polylactic acid (PLA)

      Chitosan

      Microalgae polysaccharides

      Alginate

      Lignin

      Pectin

      Carrageenan

      Polymers from Bio-derived Monomers

      Polymer Packaging Materials

      Petroleum based plastic materials

      Biobased Packaging Material

      Microbially Originated Polymers

      Polymers Produced from Micro-Organisms

      Polysaccharides

      Other biopolymers

      Mass production and customization

      Properties of Packaging Materials

      Gas Barrier Properties

      Glass

      Metals

      Plastic

      Laminates

      Additives and enhanced packaging

      Types of Barrier Properties

      Gas Barrier

      Moisture Barrier

      Light Barrier

      Microbial Barrier

      Mechanical Recycling of Bioplastics

      Biodegradability

      Packaging Products from Bio based Materials

      Biodegradable packaging: developments and challenges


      Chapter 7

      Starch-based, Natural Biopolymers and Foam for Food Packaging Technology

      Starch-based Packaging Materials

      Cellulose-based Packaging Materials

      Chitosan and Pectin-based Packaging Materials

      Polyhydroxyalkanoate-based Packaging Materials

      Polylactic Acid-based Packaging Materials

      Bionanocomposites in Food Packaging

      Properties of Polylactic Acid Bionanocomposites

      Biodegradable Polymeric Foams

      Development of Polymeric Foams 

      Sustainable Food Packaging using Bio-based Polymeric Foams

      Processing Technology for Foam Fabrication

      Physical/Soluble Foaming

      Casting and Leaching

      Foaming using Gases

      Thermally Induced Phase Separation (TIPS)

      Reactive Foaming

      Foam Packaging

      Developments in Sustainable Foams


      Chapter 8

      Corn and Rice Starch-based Bio-Plastics Biodegradable Plastics Technology

      Introduction

      Extraction of Starch

      Preparation of Bioplastics Film

      Characterization

      Tensile Test

      Thickness Measurement

      Test for Moisture Content

      Water Solubility Test

      Water Contact Angle Measurement

      Biodegradability Test

      Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)

      Thermogravimetric Analysis

      Sealing Properties of Bioplastics

      Tensile Properties

      Bioplastic Thickness

      Moisture Content

      Water Solubility

      Water Contact Angle

      Biodegradability Properties

      Thermogravimetry Analysis

      Sealing Properties of Bioplastics

      Starch: The Future of Sustainable Packaging

      Starch blends with compostable polymers:

      Antimicrobial packaging film

      Starch based nanocomposite films

      Heat sealing packaging

      Starch grafted emulsions for packaging:


      Chapter 9

      Bioplastics Processing of Dry Ingredients Technology

      Introduction

      Ingredient Properties Affecting Feedrates and Dry Ingredients Handling

      Name

      Bulk Density

      Particle Form

      Particle Size

      Angle of Repose

      Angle of Slide

      Packing and Compaction

      Packing, By Pressure

      Compacting, By Vibration

      Moisture Content

      Storage Hoppers and Ingredient Activation

      Vibration

      Internal Stirring Agitation

      Concentric Screw Agitation

      External Agitation (Flexible Hopper)

      Volumetric Feeders

      Single Screw Feeders - Sizing and Feed Rate Calculation

      Screw Sizing

      Screw Fill Efficiency

      Feed Rate Calculation

      Feeder Selection

      Spiral Screw

      Blade Screw

      Twin Screw Feeders

      Twin Concave Screws

      Vibrating Tray Feeders

      Belt Feeders

      Loss-In-Weight Feeders

      Scale

      Feed Device

      Weigh Hopper

      Feeder Controller

      Refill Device

      Principle of Operation-Continuous Feeding from a Loss-In Weight Feeder

      Loss-In-Weight Feeding Helpful Comments

      Refilling a Loss-In-Weight Feeder

      Venting a Loss-In-Weigh Feeder

      In Plant Vibration Effects on Feeder Performance

      Temperature Effects in Feeder Performance

      Scale Stabilization Time

      Flexible Connections

      Special Feeders for BioPlastics Ingredients

      Bio Ingredients-Typical Physical Characteristics

      The Physical Characteristics Aggravate Controlled Rate Feeding

      Fibers Need to be Tested in Feeders to Determine How They Can Be Fed

      Start with a Traditional Feeding Device, Example a Screw Feeder

      Feeder Control and Checking the Feed Rate

      Ingredient Storage and Keeping the Feeder Full


      Chapter 10

      Bioplastics Recycling Technology

      Introduction

      Recycling Routes

      Recycling material

      Mechanical Recycling

      Chemical Recycling

      Chemical Recycling strategies

      Biodegradation/composting

      Biological recycling

      Incineration

      Anaerobic digestion

      Energy recovery

      Landfill

      Leakage into the environment

      Comparative overview of end-of-life options


      Chapter 11

      Cassava Bags Manufacturing Technology

      Opportunities

      Manufacturing Process of Eco-Friendly Cassava Bags

      Production of Granules

      Film Production

      Production of Bags

      Types of Cassava Bags

      Cassava Grip-Hole Bags

      Cassava T-shirt Bags

      Cassava Garbage Bags

      Pros and Cons of Cassava Bags

      The Benefits of Cassava Bags

      Biodegradable Cassava Eco-Friendly Bags

      Edible

      Biodegradable

      Compostable

      Versatile

      The Disadvantages of Cassava Bags

      Produce Methane

      Extensive Manufacturing

      Plastics from Potato Waste

      Potato starch bioplastic applications

      Potato starch bioplastic pros and cons

      Pros

      Biodegradability

      Renewable resource

      Lower carbon footprint

      Versatility

      Biocompatibility

      Consumer appeal

      Cons

      Cost

      Limited durability

      Production challenges

      Competing uses for raw materials

      Limited recycling options

      Biodegradation time

      How to make bioplastic from potato starch?

      Step 1: Prepare the materials

      Step 2: Extract the Starch

      Step 3: Mix the potato starch and water

      Step 4: Heat the mixture

      Step 5: Add glycerol and vinegar

      Step 6: Pour the mixture into a mold

      Step 7: Remove the bioplastic from the mold


      Chapter 12

      Biodegradable Synthetic Polymers Technology

      Introduction

      Objective of the present invention

      Preferred Embodiments

      Claims


      Chapter 13

      Biodegradable Plastics from Renewable Sources Technology

      Raw Material of Bioplastics

      Bioplastic Classification

      Non-biodegradable bioplastics

      Partially biodegradable or durable bioplastics

      Compostable plastics

      Chemical Ingredients of Bioplastics

      Polylactic Acids (PLA)

      Polyhydoxyalkaneoates (PHA)

      Uses and Application of Bioplastics

      Bioplastic Manufacturing

      Additives and Modifiers for Biopolymers

      Toughness

      Processability

      Heat Resistance

      Foamability

      Mechanical Properties

      Processing Biodegradable Polymers

      Introduction

      Injection Molding

      NatureWorksIngeo Series

      Compression Molding

      Film Casting


      Chapter 14

      Biodegradable Plastics from Wheat Starch and Polylactic Acid (PLA)

      Introduction

      Starch based Bio-plastic

      Advantages of plastic bags made from wheat starch

      Disadvantages and challenges of wheat starch-based plastic bags

      Minh Sang Packaging Provides high-quality wheat starch plastic bags

      Wheat Janeng starch

      Wheat starch and polypropylene

      Wheat straw

      Wheat gluten

      Wheat Biocomposite

      Wheat Biocomposite Advantages and Applications

      Wheat Biocomposite Fabrication

      Biodegradable Polylactic Acid and Its Composites

      PLA Structure

      Properties of PLA

      PLA Production

      Direct Polycondensation

      Ring-Opening Polymerization (ROP)

      Modified PLA

      Copolymers

      Blending with Nano composites

      Blending with Other Polymers

      PLA Degradation

      PLA Composite Materials

      Natural Fibers

      Cellulose Nanocrystals

      Lignin

      Silk Fiber

      PHA

      PBAT

      Methods for Manufacturing PLA-Based Composites

      Microcellular Injection Molding

      Extrusion Molding

      Compression Molding

      PLA Composites for Sports Applications

      Sportswear

      Helmets

      Protective Sports Gear

      Surfboards

      Sports Medicine Tools

      3D Printed Sports Equipment

      Limitations of PLA Composites in Sports Applications


      Chapter 15

      Starch-based Biodegradable Plastics Manufacturing Technology

      Introduction

      Reason for transition from synthetic plastic materials to biobased plastic materials

      Biodegradability and Compostability

      Bioplastic as Packaging Material

      Polylactic acid (PLA)

      Cellophane

      Cellulose acetate

      Starch

      Starch Polymer

      Starch-filled Plastics 

      Thermoplastic Starch

      Why Use Starch as Packaging Material?

      Starch: The Future of Sustainable Packaging

      Starch blends with compostable polymers

      Antimicrobial packaging film

      Starch based nanocomposite films

      Heat sealing packaging

      Starch grafted emulsions for packaging

      Processing of sample (Bioplastic Preparation)

      Bioplastic from Potato starch

      Bioplastic from Cassava starch

      Bioplastic from Corn starch

      Bioplastic from Banana peel

      Bioplastic from Mangoseed

      Degradation by burring in soil

      Degradation by amylase enzyme

      Ash test

      Water uptake activity


      Chapter 16

      Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAS) Technology

      Introduction

      General Characteristics of PHAs

      Benefits of Bioplastics and PHAs in Particular

      Extraction methods

      Solvent recovery

      Green solvent recovery

      Enzymatic recovery

      Animal recovery methods

      Isolation and screening

      Reagents Preparation

      Trace Elements Solutions

      HCl (=35%) Solution Preparation

      Media Preparation

      PHA Detecting Agar

      Nutrient Broth and Nutrient Agar

      Fermentation Medium

      Seed Culture Preparation

      Sample Collection

      Waste Collection

      Submerged Fermentation for PHA Production

      Extraction of PHA Produced during Fermentation

      Quantification of Produced PHA

      Characterization of the Extracted PHA by FTIR

      Molecular Identification of the Most Efficient PHA Producing Strain

      Optimization of Cultural Conditions

      PHA Film Preparation

      Statistical Analysis


      Chapter 17

      Polylactic Acid (PLA) Technology

      Introduction

      Manufacturing of PLA products

      Benefits of PLA products

      The environmental benefits

      The food packaging benefits

      (Biodegradable) Starch based plastics

      Starch based films

      Biodegradable (and bio-based) films

      Flexible films based on biodegradable polyesters

      Trays and other thermoformed products (Bio-Based)

      Other packaging products (Bio-Based)

      PLA packaging products

      Optical Properties


      Chapter 18

      Biodegradable Tableware Manufacturing

      Manufacturing Bio-Degradable Cutlery From Sugarcane Bagasse

      Manufacturing Process of Bio-Degradable cutlery from Sugarcane Bagasseis

      Sugarcane bagasse waste for food packaging

      How is biodegradable bagasse Cutlery made?

      Advantages of Bio-Degradable Cutlery from Sugarcane Bagasse

      Applications of Bio-Degradable cutlery from Sugarcane Bagasse

      Machines Used to Manufacture Bagasse Tableware

      Automatic Tableware Forming Machine

      Tableware Edge Trimming Machine

      Production Molds

      Cornstarch Tableware

      Advantages of disposable degradable tableware:

      Bamboo Tableware

      Manufacturing process of bamboo tableware

      Types of kitchenware that can be made using bamboo

      Cutting board

      Bamboo tea infuser

      Bamboo rolling pin

      Bamboo chopsticks

      Bamboo cutlery

      Benefits of using bamboo based tableware

      Environmentally friendly

      Durable and versatile

      Say goodbye to scratches on pots and pans

      Palm Leaf Tableware

      Introduction

      The Natural Elegance

      Unveiling the Aesthetics of Palm Leaf Plates

      Unique Texture and Visual Appeal

      Sustainable Beauty

      Crafting Process

      Harvesting and Selecting Palm Leaves

      Handcrafting Techniques

      Eco-Friendly Production

      Versatility in Use

      Ideal for Various Occasions

      Serving Culinary Delights

      Perfect for Events and Parties

      Biodegradability

      Breaking Down the Environmental Impact

      Comparison with Other Disposable Plates

      Cultural Significance

      Historical Roots

      Symbolism in Different Cultures

      Modern Adoption and Popularity

      Sustainable Living

      Contributing to a Greener Planet

      Supporting Local Communities

      Palm Leaf Plates in the Circular Economy

      Maintaining Quality

      Storage and Shelf Life

      Resistance to Heat and Moisture

      Manufacturing: Turning Leaves into Plates

      Plate Making Machine


      Chapter 19

      Biodegradable Plates Manufacturing

      Characteristics of Bagasse

      Renewable

      Compostable

      Easily Available

      Benefits of using biodegradable plates

      Easy composting

      Safe to use with microwave

      Highly energy efficient

      Nontoxic

      Saves Non-renewable Sources of Energy

      Reduces Carbon Emission

      Provides an Eco-Friendly Solution

      Manufacturing Process of Areca Leaf Plates

      Collecting Raw Material

      Drying the Areca Sheath

      Cleaning the Areca Sheath

      The Areca Leaf Plate Making Machine

      Pressing the Plates

      Waste Sheaths

      Grading the Areca Leaf Plates


      Chapter 20

      Biodegradable Toilet Paper Manufacturing

      Types of Biodegradable Toilet Paper

      The Toilet Paper Manufacturing Process

      Making toilet paper from the trees

      Steps:


      Chapter 21

      Biodegradable Polyolefins Technology

      Introduction

      General procedure for grafting of sugars onto poly(styrene maleic anhydride)

      Determination of biodegradability of polymers using aerobic microorganisms

      Supplementary Data

      Weight loss data

      FTIR Spectral Data:

      Quantification of carbohydrate groups linked to poly(styrene-maleic anhydride) by silylation of the carbohydrate hydroxyl’s and NMR anlysis of the spectrum

      Molecular weight decrease after biodegradation by GPC


      Chapter 22

      Starch for Packaging Technology

      Bioplastic as Packaging Material

      Cellophane

      Cellulose acetate

      Starch

      Food packaging characteristics

      Bioplastic packaging

      Recent Advances in Starch Based Composites for Packaging Applications

      Antimicrobial packaging film:

      Plasticized Starch and Fiber Reinforced Composites for Packaging Applications

      Protein-Starch Based Plastic Produced by Extrusion and Injection Molding

      Temperature

      Moisture

      Genetically modified bioplastics


      Chapter 23

      Photographs of Plant and Machinery

      Biodegradable Bag Making Machine

      Corn Starch Biodegradable Bag Machine

      Biodegradable or Compostable machine

      Biodegradable Carry Bag Cutting and Sealing Machine

      Biodegradable Carry Bag Machine

      Description

      Biodegradable Plastic Film Machine

      Blown Film Machine

      Areca Leaf Plate Machine

      Betel Leaf Plate Machine

      Areca Food Container Machine

      Bagasse Tableware Pulp Molding Machine

      Egg Tray Machine

      Straw Making Machine


      Chapter 24

      Plant Economics of 100% Biodegradable Bioplastic

      Land & Building

      Plant & Machinery

      Fixed Capital

      Working Capital Requirement/Month

      Total Capital Investment

      Turn Over/Annum


      Chapter 25

      Plant Economics of Bagasse Tableware (Plates, Glass, Bowl, Food Container etc.)

      Land & Building

      Plant & Machinery

      Fixed Capital

      Working Capital Requirement/Month

      Total Capital Investment

      Turn Over/Annum


      Chapter 26

      Plant Economics of Biodegradable Carry Bags and Garbage Bags

      Land & Building

      Plant & Machinery

      Fixed Capital

      Working Capital Requirement/Month

      Total Capital Investment

      Turn Over/Annum


      Chapter 27

      Plant Economics of Biodegradable Disposable Tableware (By Using Palm Tree Products)

      Land & Building

      Plant & Machinery

      Fixed Capital

      Working Capital Requirement/Month

      Total Capital Investment

      Turn Over/Annum


      Chapter 28

      Plant Economics of Bioplastic Production from Natural Carbohydrates e.g. Cassava, Corn, Sago, Banana etc.

      Land & Building

      Plant & Machinery

      Fixed Capital

      Working Capital Requirement/Month

      Total Capital Investment

      Turn Over/Annum


      Chapter 29

      Plant Economics of Fully Automatic Paper Straw (Eco Friendly) Manufacturing Plant

      Land & Building

      Plant & Machinery

      Fixed Capital

      Working Capital Requirement/Month

      Total Capital Investment

      Turn Over/Annum


      Chapter 30

      Plant Economics of Oxo Biodegradable Carry Bags

      Land & Building

      Plant & Machinery

      Fixed Capital

      Working Capital Requirement/Month

      Total Capital Investment

      Turn Over/Annum


      Chapter 31

      Plant Economics of Wheat Straw, Corn, Cassava Starch or Bagasse Tableware Manufacturing

      Land & Building

      Plant & Machinery

      Fixed Capital

      Working Capital Requirement/Month

      Total Capital Investment

      Turn Over/Annum


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